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Learning Mixtures of Submodular Functions for Image Collection Summarization
Sebastian Tschiatschek · Rishabh K Iyer · Haochen Wei · Jeffrey A Bilmes

Tue Dec 09 04:00 PM -- 08:59 PM (PST) @ Level 2, room 210D #None

We address the problem of image collection summarization by learning mixtures of submodular functions. We argue that submodularity is very natural to this problem, and we show that a number of previously used scoring functions are submodular — a property not explicitly mentioned in these publications. We provide classes of submodular functions capturing the necessary properties of summaries, namely coverage, likelihood, and diversity. To learn mixtures of these submodular functions as scoring functions, we formulate summarization as a supervised learning problem using large-margin structured prediction. Furthermore, we introduce a novel evaluation metric, which we call V-ROUGE, for automatic summary scoring. While a similar metric called ROUGE has been successfully applied to document summarization [14], no such metric was known for quantifying the quality of image collection summaries. We provide a new dataset consisting of 14 real-world image collections along with many human-generated ground truth summaries collected using mechanical turk. We also extensively compare our method with previously explored methods for this problem and show that our learning approach outperforms all competitors on this new dataset. This paper provides, to our knowledge, the first systematic approach for quantifying the problem of image collection summarization, along with a new dataset of image collections and human summaries.

Author Information

Sebastian Tschiatschek (Graz University of Technology)
Rishabh K Iyer (University of Washington, Seattle)
Haochen Wei
Jeff A Bilmes (University of Washington, Seattle)

Jeffrey A. Bilmes is a professor at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Washington, Seattle Washington. He is also an adjunct professor in Computer Science & Engineering and the department of Linguistics. Prof. Bilmes is the founder of the MELODI (MachinE Learning for Optimization and Data Interpretation) lab here in the department. Bilmes received his Ph.D. from the Computer Science Division of the department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California in Berkeley and a masters degree from MIT. He was also a researcher at the International Computer Science Institute, and a member of the Realization group there. Prof. Bilmes is a 2001 NSF Career award winner, a 2002 CRA Digital Government Fellow, a 2008 NAE Gilbreth Lectureship award recipient, and a 2012/2013 ISCA Distinguished Lecturer. Prof. Bilmes was, along with Andrew Ng, one of the two UAI (Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence) program chairs (2009) and then the general chair (2010). He was also a workshop chair (2011) and the tutorials chair (2014) at NIPS/NeurIPS (Neural Information Processing Systems), and is a regular senior technical chair at NeurIPS/NIPS since then. He was an action editor for JMLR (Journal of Machine Learning Research). Prof. Bilmes's primary interests lie in statistical modeling (particularly graphical model approaches) and signal processing for pattern classification, speech recognition, language processing, bioinformatics, machine learning, submodularity in combinatorial optimization and machine learning, active and semi-supervised learning, and audio/music processing. He is particularly interested in temporal graphical models (or dynamic graphical models, which includes HMMs, DBNs, and CRFs) and ways in which to design efficient algorithms for them and design their structure so that they may perform as better structured classifiers. He also has strong interests in speech-based human-computer interfaces, the statistical properties of natural objects and natural scenes, information theory and its relation to natural computation by humans and pattern recognition by machines, and computational music processing (such as human timing subtleties). He is also quite interested in high performance computing systems, computer architecture, and software techniques to reduce power consumption. Prof. Bilmes has also pioneered (starting in 2003) the development of submodularity within machine learning, and he received a best paper award at ICML 2013, a best paper award at NIPS 2013, and a best paper award at ACMBCB in 2016, all in this area. In 2014, Prof. Bilmes also received a most influential paper in 25 years award from the International Conference on Supercomputing, given to a paper on high-performance matrix optimization. Prof. Bilmes has authored the graphical models toolkit (GMTK), a dynamic graphical-model based software system widely used in speech, language, bioinformatics, and human-activity recognition.

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