Heterogeneous behaviours are widespread in many multi-agent tasks, which have not been paid much attention in the community of multi-agent reinforcement learning. It would be a key factor for improving the learning performance to efficiently characterize and automatically find heterogeneous behaviours. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the skill to explore the ability of heterogeneous behaviours. We propose a novel skill-based multi-agent reinforcement learning framework to enable agents to master diverse skills. Specifically, our framework consists of the skill representation mechanism, the skill selector and the skill-based policy learning mechanism. We design an auto-encoder model to generate the latent variable as the skill representation by incorporating the environment information, which ensures the distinguishable of agents for skill selection and the discriminability for the skill learning. With the representation, a skill selection mechanism is invented to realize the assignment from agents to skills. Meanwhile, diverse skill-based policies are generated through a novel skill-based policy learning method. To promote efficient skill discovery, a mutual information based intrinsic reward function is constructed. Empirical results show that our framework obtains the best performance on three challenging benchmarks, i.e., StarCraft II micromanagement tasks, Google Research Football and GoBigger, over state-of-the-art MARL methods.
Yuan Li (Academy of Military Sciences)
Xinhai Xu (National University of Defense Technology, Tsinghua University)
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