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MAESTRO: Open-Ended Environment Design for Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning
Mikayel Samvelyan · Akbir Khan · Michael Dennis · Minqi Jiang · Jack Parker-Holder · Jakob Foerster · Roberta Raileanu · Tim Rocktäschel
Event URL: https://openreview.net/forum?id=eOTZp6IGAPj »

Open-ended learning methods that automatically generate a curriculum of increasingly challenging tasks serve as a promising avenue toward generally capable reinforcement learning (RL) agents. Existing methods adapt curricula independently over either environment parameters (in single-agent settings) or co-player policies (in multi-agent settings). However, the strengths and weaknesses of co-players can manifest themselves differently depending on environmental features. It is thus crucial to consider the dependency between the environment and co-player when shaping a curriculum in multi-agent domains. In this work, we use this insight and extend Unsupervised Environment Design (UED) to multi-agent environments. We then introduce Multi-Agent Environment-Space Response Oracles (MAESTRO), the first multi-agent UED approach for two-player zero-sum settings. MAESTRO efficiently produces adversarial, joint curricula over both environment parameters and co-player policies and attains minimax-regret guarantees at Nash equilibrium. Our experiments show that MAESTRO outperforms a number of strong baselines on competitive two-player environments, spanning discrete and continuous control.

Author Information

Mikayel Samvelyan (UCL & Meta AI)
Akbir Khan (University College London)
Michael Dennis (UC Berkeley)

Michael Dennis is a 5th year grad student at the Center for Human-Compatible AI. With a background in theoretical computer science, he is working to close the gap between decision theoretic and game theoretic recommendations and the current state of the art approaches to robust RL and multi-agent RL. The overall aim of this work is to ensure that our systems behave in a way that is robustly beneficial. In the single agent setting, this means making decisions and managing risk in the way the designer intends. In the multi-agent setting, this means ensuring that the concerns of the designer and those of others in the society are fairly and justly negotiated to the benefit of all involved.

Minqi Jiang (UCL & FAIR)
Jack Parker-Holder (DeepMind)
Jakob Foerster (University of Oxford)

Jakob Foerster received a CIFAR AI chair in 2019 and is starting as an Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto and the Vector Institute in the academic year 20/21. During his PhD at the University of Oxford, he helped bring deep multi-agent reinforcement learning to the forefront of AI research and interned at Google Brain, OpenAI, and DeepMind. He has since been working as a research scientist at Facebook AI Research in California, where he will continue advancing the field up to his move to Toronto. He was the lead organizer of the first Emergent Communication (EmeCom) workshop at NeurIPS in 2017, which he has helped organize ever since.

Roberta Raileanu (FAIR)
Tim Rocktäschel (University College London, Facebook AI Research)

Tim is a Researcher at Facebook AI Research (FAIR) London, an Associate Professor at the Centre for Artificial Intelligence in the Department of Computer Science at University College London (UCL), and a Scholar of the European Laboratory for Learning and Intelligent Systems (ELLIS). Prior to that, he was a Postdoctoral Researcher in Reinforcement Learning at the University of Oxford, a Junior Research Fellow in Computer Science at Jesus College, and a Stipendiary Lecturer in Computer Science at Hertford College. Tim obtained his Ph.D. from UCL under the supervision of Sebastian Riedel, and he was awarded a Microsoft Research Ph.D. Scholarship in 2013 and a Google Ph.D. Fellowship in 2017. His work focuses on reinforcement learning in open-ended environments that require intrinsically motivated agents capable of transferring commonsense, world and domain knowledge in order to systematically generalize to novel situations.

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