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## Orals & Spotlights Track 15: COVID/Applications/Composition

Each Oral includes Q&A
Spotlights have joint Q&As

### Time

2020-12-09T06:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T09:00:00-08:00

### Session chairs

Jose Miguel Hernández-Lobato, Oliver Stegle

### Schedule

2020-12-09T06:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T06:15:00-08:00
##### 1 - Oral: High-Fidelity Generative Image Compression
Fabian Mentzer, George D Toderici, Michael Tschannen, Eirikur Agustsson
We extensively study how to combine Generative Adversarial Networks and learned compression to obtain a state-of-the-art generative lossy compression system. In particular, we investigate normalization layers, generator and discriminator architectures, training strategies, as well as perceptual losses. In contrast to previous work, i) we obtain visually pleasing reconstructions that are perceptually similar to the input, ii) we operate in a broad range of bitrates, and iii) our approach can be applied to high-resolution images. We bridge the gap between rate-distortion-perception theory and practice by evaluating our approach both quantitatively with various perceptual metrics, and with a user study. The study shows that our method is preferred to previous approaches even if they use more than 2x the bitrate.
2020-12-09T06:15:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T06:30:00-08:00
##### 2 - Oral: Learning Composable Energy Surrogates for PDE Order Reduction
Alex Beatson, Jordan Ash, Geoffrey Roeder, Tianju Xue, Ryan Adams
Meta-materials are an important emerging class of engineered materials in which complex macroscopic behaviour--whether electromagnetic, thermal, or mechanical--arises from modular substructure. Simulation and optimization of these materials are computationally challenging, as rich substructures necessitate high-fidelity finite element meshes to solve the governing PDEs. To address this, we leverage parametric modular structure to learn component-level surrogates, enabling cheaper high-fidelity simulation. We use a neural network to model the stored potential energy in a component given boundary conditions. This yields a structured prediction task: macroscopic behavior is determined by the minimizer of the system's total potential energy, which can be approximated by composing these surrogate models. Composable energy surrogates thus permit simulation in the reduced basis of component boundaries. Costly ground-truth simulation of the full structure is avoided, as training data are generated by performing finite element analysis of individual components. Using dataset aggregation to choose training data allows us to learn energy surrogates which produce accurate macroscopic behavior when composed, accelerating simulation of parametric meta-materials.
2020-12-09T06:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T06:45:00-08:00
##### 3 - Oral: Hierarchically Organized Latent Modules for Exploratory Search in Morphogenetic Systems
Mayalen Etcheverry, Clément Moulin-Frier, Pierre-Yves Oudeyer
Self-organization of complex morphological patterns from local interactions is a fascinating phenomenon in many natural and artificial systems. In the artificial world, typical examples of such morphogenetic systems are cellular automata. Yet, their mechanisms are often very hard to grasp and so far scientific discoveries of novel patterns have primarily been relying on manual tuning and ad hoc exploratory search. The problem of automated diversity-driven discovery in these systems was recently introduced [26, 62], highlighting that two key ingredients are autonomous exploration and unsupervised representation learning to describe “relevant” degrees of variations in the patterns. In this paper, we motivate the need for what we call Meta-diversity search, arguing that there is not a unique ground truth interesting diversity as it strongly depends on the final observer and its motives. Using a continuous game-of-life system for experiments, we provide empirical evidences that relying on monolithic architectures for the behavioral embedding design tends to bias the final discoveries (both for hand-defined and unsupervisedly-learned features) which are unlikely to be aligned with the interest of a final end-user. To address these issues, we introduce a novel dynamic and modular architecture that enables unsupervised learning of a hierarchy of diverse representations. Combined with intrinsically motivated goal exploration algorithms, we show that this system forms a discovery assistant that can efficiently adapt its diversity search towards preferences of a user using only a very small amount of user feedback.
2020-12-09T06:45:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T07:00:00-08:00
##### Break
2020-12-09T07:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T07:10:00-08:00
##### 5 - Spotlight: Compositional Generalization by Learning Analytical Expressions
Qian Liu, Shengnan An, Jian-Guang Lou, Bei Chen, Zeqi Lin, Yan Gao, Bin Zhou, Nanning Zheng, Dongmei Zhang
Compositional generalization is a basic and essential intellective capability of human beings, which allows us to recombine known parts readily. However, existing neural network based models have been proven to be extremely deficient in such a capability. Inspired by work in cognition which argues compositionality can be captured by variable slots with symbolic functions, we present a refreshing view that connects a memory-augmented neural model with analytical expressions, to achieve compositional generalization. Our model consists of two cooperative neural modules, Composer and Solver, fitting well with the cognitive argument while being able to be trained in an end-to-end manner via a hierarchical reinforcement learning algorithm. Experiments on the well-known benchmark SCAN demonstrate that our model seizes a great ability of compositional generalization, solving all challenges addressed by previous works with 100% accuracies.
2020-12-09T07:10:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T07:20:00-08:00
##### 6 - Spotlight: Modern Hopfield Networks and Attention for Immune Repertoire Classification
Michael Widrich, Bernhard Schäfl, Milena Pavlović, Hubert Ramsauer, Lukas Gruber, Markus Holzleitner, Johannes Brandstetter, Geir Kjetil Sandve, Victor Greiff, Sepp Hochreiter, Günter Klambauer
A central mechanism in machine learning is to identify, store, and recognize patterns. How to learn, access, and retrieve such patterns is crucial in Hopfield networks and the more recent transformer architectures. We show that the attention mechanism of transformer architectures is actually the update rule of modern Hopfield networks that can store exponentially many patterns. We exploit this high storage capacity of modern Hopfield networks to solve a challenging multiple instance learning (MIL) problem in computational biology: immune repertoire classification. In immune repertoire classification, a vast number of immune receptors are used to predict the immune status of an individual. This constitutes a MIL problem with an unprecedentedly massive number of instances, two orders of magnitude larger than currently considered problems, and with an extremely low witness rate. Accurate and interpretable machine learning methods solving this problem could pave the way towards new vaccines and therapies, which is currently a very relevant research topic intensified by the COVID-19 crisis. In this work, we present our novel method DeepRC that integrates transformer-like attention, or equivalently modern Hopfield networks, into deep learning architectures for massive MIL such as immune repertoire classification. We demonstrate that DeepRC outperforms all other methods with respect to predictive performance on large-scale experiments including simulated and real-world virus infection data and enables the extraction of sequence motifs that are connected to a given disease class. Source code and datasets: https://github.com/ml-jku/DeepRC
2020-12-09T07:20:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T07:30:00-08:00
##### 7 - Spotlight: ICE-BeeM: Identifiable Conditional Energy-Based Deep Models Based on Nonlinear ICA
Ilyes Khemakhem, Ricardo Monti, Diederik P. Kingma, Aapo Hyvarinen
We consider the identifiability theory of probabilistic models and establish sufficient conditions under which the representations learnt by a very broad family of conditional energy-based models are unique in function space, up to a simple transformation. In our model family, the energy function is the dot-product between two feature extractors, one for the dependent variable, and one for the conditioning variable. We show that under mild conditions, the features are unique up to scaling and permutation. Our results extend recent developments in nonlinear ICA, and in fact, they lead to an important generalization of ICA models. In particular, we show that our model can be used for the estimation of the components in the framework of Independently Modulated Component Analysis (IMCA), a new generalization of nonlinear ICA that relaxes the independence assumption. A thorough empirical study show that representations learnt by our model from real-world image datasets are identifiable, and improve performance in transfer learning and semi-supervised learning tasks.
2020-12-09T07:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T07:40:00-08:00
##### 8 - Spotlight: A causal view of compositional zero-shot recognition
Yuval Atzmon, Felix Kreuk, Uri Shalit, Gal Chechik
People easily recognize new visual categories that are new combinations of known components. This compositional generalization capacity is critical for learning in real-world domains like vision and language because the long tail of new combinations dominates the distribution. Unfortunately, learning systems struggle with compositional generalization because they often build on features that are correlated with class labels even if they are not "essential" for the class. This leads to consistent misclassification of samples from a new distribution, like new combinations of known components. Here we describe an approach for compositional generalization that builds on causal ideas. First, we describe compositional zero-shot learning from a causal perspective, and propose to view zero-shot inference as finding "which intervention caused the image?". Second, we present a causal-inspired embedding model that learns disentangled representations of elementary components of visual objects from correlated (confounded) training data. We evaluate this approach on two datasets for predicting new combinations of attribute-object pairs: A well-controlled synthesized images dataset and a real world dataset which consists of fine-grained types of shoes. We show improvements compared to strong baselines.
2020-12-09T07:40:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T07:50:00-08:00
##### Q&A: Joint Q&A for Preceeding Spotlights
2020-12-09T07:50:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T08:00:00-08:00
##### 10 - Spotlight: RetroXpert: Decompose Retrosynthesis Prediction Like A Chemist
Chaochao Yan, Qianggang Ding, Peilin Zhao, Shuangjia Zheng, JINYU YANG, Yang Yu, Junzhou Huang
Retrosynthesis is the process of recursively decomposing target molecules into available building blocks. It plays an important role in solving problems in organic synthesis planning. To automate or assist in the retrosynthesis analysis, various retrosynthesis prediction algorithms have been proposed. However, most of them are cumbersome and lack interpretability about their predictions. In this paper, we devise a novel template-free algorithm for automatic retrosynthetic expansion inspired by how chemists approach retrosynthesis prediction. Our method disassembles retrosynthesis into two steps: i) identify the potential reaction center of the target molecule through a novel graph neural network and generate intermediate synthons, and ii) generate the reactants associated with synthons via a robust reactant generation model. While outperforming the state-of-the-art baselines by a significant margin, our model also provides chemically reasonable interpretation.
2020-12-09T08:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T08:10:00-08:00
##### 11 - Spotlight: Barking up the right tree: an approach to search over molecule synthesis DAGs
John Bradshaw, Brooks Paige, Matt Kusner, Marwin Segler, Jose Miguel Hernández-Lobato
When designing new molecules with particular properties, it is not only important what to make but crucially how to make it. These instructions form a synthesis directed acyclic graph (DAG), describing how a large vocabulary of simple building blocks can be recursively combined through chemical reactions to create more complicated molecules of interest. In contrast, many current deep generative models for molecules ignore synthesizability. We therefore propose a deep generative model that better represents the real world process, by directly outputting molecule synthesis DAGs. We argue that this provides sensible inductive biases, ensuring that our model searches over the same chemical space that chemists would also have access to, as well as interoperability. We show that our approach is able to model chemical space well, producing a wide range of diverse molecules, and allows for unconstrained optimization of an inherently constrained problem: maximize certain chemical properties such that discovered molecules are synthesizable.
2020-12-09T08:10:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T08:20:00-08:00
##### 12 - Spotlight: Learning Object-Centric Representations of Multi-Object Scenes from Multiple Views
Nanbo Li, Cian Eastwood, Robert Fisher
Learning object-centric representations of multi-object scenes is a promising approach towards machine intelligence, facilitating high-level reasoning and control from visual sensory data. However, current approaches for \textit{unsupervised object-centric scene representation} are incapable of aggregating information from multiple observations of a scene. As a result, these single-view'' methods form their representations of a 3D scene based only on a single 2D observation (view). Naturally, this leads to several inaccuracies, with these methods falling victim to single-view spatial ambiguities. To address this, we propose \textit{The Multi-View and Multi-Object Network (MulMON)}---a method for learning accurate, object-centric representations of multi-object scenes by leveraging multiple views. In order to sidestep the main technical difficulty of the \textit{multi-object-multi-view} scenario---maintaining object correspondences across views---MulMON iteratively updates the latent object representations for a scene over multiple views. To ensure that these iterative updates do indeed aggregate spatial information to form a complete 3D scene understanding, MulMON is asked to predict the appearance of the scene from novel viewpoints during training. Through experiments we show that MulMON better-resolves spatial ambiguities than single-view methods---learning more accurate and disentangled object representations---and also achieves new functionality in predicting object segmentations for novel viewpoints.
2020-12-09T08:20:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T08:30:00-08:00
##### 13 - Spotlight: Experimental design for MRI by greedy policy search
Tim Bakker, Herke van Hoof, Max Welling
In today’s clinical practice, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely accelerated through subsampling of the associated Fourier domain. Currently, the construction of these subsampling strategies - known as experimental design - relies primarily on heuristics. We propose to learn experimental design strategies for accelerated MRI with policy gradient methods. Unexpectedly, our experiments show that a simple greedy approximation of the objective leads to solutions nearly on-par with the more general non-greedy approach. We offer a partial explanation for this phenomenon rooted in greater variance in the non-greedy objective's gradient estimates, and experimentally verify that this variance hampers non-greedy models in adapting their policies to individual MR images. We empirically show that this adaptivity is key to improving subsampling designs.
2020-12-09T08:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T08:40:00-08:00
##### 14 - Spotlight: How Robust are the Estimated Effects of Nonpharmaceutical Interventions against COVID-19?
Mrinank Sharma, Sören Mindermann, Jan Brauner, Gavin Leech, Anna Stephenson, Tomáš Gavenčiak, Jan Kulveit, Yee Whye Teh, Leonid Chindelevitch, Yarin Gal
To what extent are effectiveness estimates of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against COVID-19 influenced by the assumptions our models make? To answer this question, we investigate 2 state-of-the-art NPI effectiveness models and propose 6 variants that make different structural assumptions. In particular, we investigate how well NPI effectiveness estimates generalise to unseen countries, and their sensitivity to unobserved factors. Models which account for noise in disease transmission compare favourably. We further evaluate how robust estimates are to different choices of epidemiological parameters and data. Focusing on models that assume transmission noise, we find that previously published results are robust across these choices and across different models. Finally, we mathematically ground the interpretation of NPI effectiveness estimates when certain common assumptions do not hold.
2020-12-09T08:40:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T08:50:00-08:00
##### Q&A: Joint Q&A for Preceeding Spotlights
2020-12-09T08:50:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T09:00:00-08:00