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Orals & Spotlights Track 23: Graph/Meta Learning/Software

Each Oral includes Q&A
Spotlights have joint Q&As


2020-12-09T18:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T21:00:00-08:00

Session chairs

Stephen Bach, Tom Goldstein



To ask questions please use rocketchat, available only upon registration and login.


2020-12-09T18:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T18:15:00-08:00
1 - Oral: FrugalML: How to use ML Prediction APIs more accurately and cheaply
Lingjiao Chen, Matei Zaharia, James Zou
Offering prediction APIs for fee is a fast growing industry and is an important aspect of machine learning as a service. While many such services are available, the heterogeneity in their price and performance makes it challenging for users to decide which API or combination of APIs to use for their own data and budget. We take a first step towards addressing this challenge by proposing FrugalML, a principled framework that jointly learns the strength and weakness of each API on different data, and performs an efficient optimization to automatically identify the best sequential strategy to adaptively use the available APIs within a budget constraint. Our theoretical analysis shows that natural sparsity in the formulation can be leveraged to make FrugalML efficient. We conduct systematic experiments using ML APIs from Google, Microsoft, Amazon, IBM, Baidu and other providers for tasks including facial emotion recognition, sentiment analysis and speech recognition. Across various tasks, FrugalML can achieve up to 90% cost reduction while matching the accuracy of the best single API, or up to 5% better accuracy while matching the best API’s cost.
2020-12-09T18:15:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T18:30:00-08:00
2 - Oral: AI Feynman 2.0: Pareto-optimal symbolic regression exploiting graph modularity
Silviu-Marian Udrescu, Andrew K Tan, Jiahai Feng, Orisvaldo Neto, Tailin Wu, Max Tegmark
We present an improved method for symbolic regression that seeks to fit data to formulas that are Pareto-optimal, in the sense of having the best accuracy for a given complexity. It improves on the previous state-of-the-art by typically being orders of magnitude more robust toward noise and bad data, and also by discovering many formulas that stumped previous methods. We develop a method for discovering generalized symmetries (arbitrary modularity in the computational graph of a formula) from gradient properties of a neural network fit. We use normalizing flows to generalize our symbolic regression method to probability distributions from which we only have samples, and employ statistical hypothesis testing to accelerate robust brute-force search.
2020-12-09T18:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T18:45:00-08:00
3 - Oral: PyGlove: Symbolic Programming for Automated Machine Learning
Daiyi Peng, Xuanyi Dong, Esteban Real, Mingxing Tan, Yifeng Lu, Gabriel Bender, Hanxiao Liu, Adam Kraft, Chen Liang, Quoc V Le
Neural networks are sensitive to hyper-parameter and architecture choices. Automated Machine Learning (AutoML) is a promising paradigm for automating these choices. Current ML software libraries, however, are quite limited in handling the dynamic interactions among the components of AutoML. For example, efficient NAS algorithms, such as ENAS and DARTS, typically require an implementation coupling between the search space and search algorithm, the two key components in AutoML. Furthermore, implementing a complex search flow, such as searching architectures within a loop of searching hardware configurations, is difficult. To summarize, changing the search space, search algorithm, or search flow in current ML libraries usually requires a significant change in the program logic. In this paper, we introduce a new way of programming AutoML based on symbolic programming. Under this paradigm, ML programs are mutable, thus can be manipulated easily by another program. As a result, AutoML can be reformulated as an automated process of symbolic manipulation. With this formulation, we decouple the triangle of the search algorithm, the search space and the child program. This decoupling makes it easy to change the search space and search algorithm (without and with weight sharing), as well as to add search capabilities to existing code and implement complex search flows. We then introduce PyGlove, a new Python library that implements this paradigm. Through case studies on ImageNet and NAS-Bench-101, we show that with PyGlove users can easily convert a static program into a search space, quickly iterate on the search spaces and search algorithms, and craft complex search flows to achieve better results.
2020-12-09T18:45:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T19:00:00-08:00
2020-12-09T19:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T19:10:00-08:00
5 - Spotlight: Improved Schemes for Episodic Memory-based Lifelong Learning
Yunhui Guo, Mingrui Liu, Tianbao Yang, Tajana Rosing
Current deep neural networks can achieve remarkable performance on a single task. However, when the deep neural network is continually trained on a sequence of tasks, it seems to gradually forget the previous learned knowledge. This phenomenon is referred to as catastrophic forgetting and motivates the field called lifelong learning. Recently, episodic memory based approaches such as GEM and A-GEM have shown remarkable performance. In this paper, we provide the first unified view of episodic memory based approaches from an optimization's perspective. This view leads to two improved schemes for episodic memory based lifelong learning, called MEGA-\rom{1} and MEGA-\rom{2}. MEGA-\rom{1} and MEGA-\rom{2} modulate the balance between old tasks and the new task by integrating the current gradient with the gradient computed on the episodic memory. Notably, we show that GEM and A-GEM are degenerate cases of MEGA-\rom{1} and MEGA-\rom{2} which consistently put the same emphasis on the current task, regardless of how the loss changes over time. Our proposed schemes address this issue by using novel loss-balancing updating rules, which drastically improve the performance over GEM and A-GEM. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed schemes significantly advance the state-of-the-art on four commonly used lifelong learning benchmarks, reducing the error by up to 18%.
2020-12-09T19:10:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T19:20:00-08:00
6 - Spotlight: Spectral Temporal Graph Neural Network for Multivariate Time-series Forecasting
Defu Cao, Yujing Wang, Juanyong Duan, Ce Zhang, Xia Zhu, Congrui Huang, Yunhai Tong, Bixiong Xu, Jing Bai, Jie Tong, Qi Zhang
Multivariate time-series forecasting plays a crucial role in many real-world applications. It is a challenging problem as one needs to consider both intra-series temporal correlations and inter-series correlations simultaneously. Recently, there have been multiple works trying to capture both correlations, but most, if not all of them only capture temporal correlations in the time domain and resort to pre-defined priors as inter-series relationships. In this paper, we propose Spectral Temporal Graph Neural Network (StemGNN) to further improve the accuracy of multivariate time-series forecasting. StemGNN captures inter-series correlations and temporal dependencies jointly in the spectral domain. It combines Graph Fourier Transform (GFT) which models inter-series correlations and Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) which models temporal dependencies in an end-to-end framework. After passing through GFT and DFT, the spectral representations hold clear patterns and can be predicted effectively by convolution and sequential learning modules. Moreover, StemGNN learns inter-series correlations automatically from the data without using pre-defined priors. We conduct extensive experiments on ten real-world datasets to demonstrate the effectiveness of StemGNN.
2020-12-09T19:20:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T19:30:00-08:00
7 - Spotlight: Uncertainty Aware Semi-Supervised Learning on Graph Data
Xujiang Zhao, Feng Chen, Shu Hu, Jin-Hee Cho
Thanks to graph neural networks (GNNs), semi-supervised node classification has shown the state-of-the-art performance in graph data. However, GNNs have not considered different types of uncertainties associated with class probabilities to minimize risk of increasing misclassification under uncertainty in real life. In this work, we propose a multi-source uncertainty framework using a GNN that reflects various types of predictive uncertainties in both deep learning and belief/evidence theory domains for node classification predictions. By collecting evidence from the given labels of training nodes, the Graph-based Kernel Dirichlet distribution Estimation (GKDE) method is designed for accurately predicting node-level Dirichlet distributions and detecting out-of-distribution (OOD) nodes. We validated the outperformance of our proposed model compared to the state-of-the-art counterparts in terms of misclassification detection and OOD detection based on six real network datasets. We found that dissonance-based detection yielded the best results on misclassification detection while vacuity-based detection was the best for OOD detection. To clarify the reasons behind the results, we provided the theoretical proof that explains the relationships between different types of uncertainties considered in this work.
2020-12-09T19:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T19:40:00-08:00
8 - Spotlight: Rethinking Importance Weighting for Deep Learning under Distribution Shift
Tongtong Fang, Nan Lu, Gang Niu, Masashi Sugiyama
Under distribution shift (DS) where the training data distribution differs from the test one, a powerful technique is importance weighting (IW) which handles DS in two separate steps: weight estimation (WE) estimates the test-over-training density ratio and weighted classification (WC) trains the classifier from weighted training data. However, IW cannot work well on complex data, since WE is incompatible with deep learning. In this paper, we rethink IW and theoretically show it suffers from a circular dependency: we need not only WE for WC, but also WC for WE where a trained deep classifier is used as the feature extractor (FE). To cut off the dependency, we try to pretrain FE from unweighted training data, which leads to biased FE. To overcome the bias, we propose an end-to-end solution dynamic IW that iterates between WE and WC and combines them in a seamless manner, and hence our WE can also enjoy deep networks and stochastic optimizers indirectly. Experiments with two representative types of DS on three popular datasets show that our dynamic IW compares favorably with state-of-the-art methods.
2020-12-09T19:40:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T19:50:00-08:00
Q&A: Joint Q&A for Preceeding Spotlights
2020-12-09T19:50:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T20:00:00-08:00
10 - Spotlight: Modular Meta-Learning with Shrinkage
Yutian Chen, Abe Friesen, Feryal Behbahani, Arnaud Doucet, David Budden, Matthew Hoffman, Nando de Freitas
Many real-world problems, including multi-speaker text-to-speech synthesis, can greatly benefit from the ability to meta-learn large models with only a few task- specific components. Updating only these task-specific modules then allows the model to be adapted to low-data tasks for as many steps as necessary without risking overfitting. Unfortunately, existing meta-learning methods either do not scale to long adaptation or else rely on handcrafted task-specific architectures. Here, we propose a meta-learning approach that obviates the need for this often sub-optimal hand-selection. In particular, we develop general techniques based on Bayesian shrinkage to automatically discover and learn both task-specific and general reusable modules. Empirically, we demonstrate that our method discovers a small set of meaningful task-specific modules and outperforms existing meta- learning approaches in domains like few-shot text-to-speech that have little task data and long adaptation horizons. We also show that existing meta-learning methods including MAML, iMAML, and Reptile emerge as special cases of our method.
2020-12-09T20:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T20:10:00-08:00
11 - Spotlight: JAX MD: A Framework for Differentiable Physics
Sam Schoenholz, Dogus Cubuk
We introduce JAX MD, a software package for performing differentiable physics simulations with a focus on molecular dynamics. JAX MD includes a number of statistical physics simulation environments as well as interaction potentials and neural networks that can be integrated into these environments without writing any additional code. Since the simulations themselves are differentiable functions, entire trajectories can be differentiated to perform meta-optimization. These features are built on primitive operations, such as spatial partitioning, that allow simulations to scale to hundreds-of-thousands of particles on a single GPU. These primitives are flexible enough that they can be used to scale up workloads outside of molecular dynamics. We present several examples that highlight the features of JAX MD including: integration of graph neural networks into traditional simulations, meta-optimization through minimization of particle packings, and a multi-agent flocking simulation. JAX MD is available at
2020-12-09T20:10:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T20:20:00-08:00
12 - Spotlight: RNNPool: Efficient Non-linear Pooling for RAM Constrained Inference
Oindrila Saha, Aditya Kusupati, Harsha Simhadri, Manik Varma, Prateek Jain
Standard Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) designed for computer vision tasks tend to have large intermediate activation maps. These require large working memory and are thus unsuitable for deployment on resource-constrained devices typically used for inference on the edge. Aggressively downsampling the images via pooling or strided convolutions can address the problem but leads to a significant decrease in accuracy due to gross aggregation of the feature map by standard pooling operators. In this paper, we introduce RNNPool, a novel pooling operator based on Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), that efficiently aggregates features over large patches of an image and rapidly downsamples activation maps. Empirical evaluation indicates that an RNNPool layer can effectively replace multiple blocks in a variety of architectures such as MobileNets, DenseNet when applied to standard vision tasks like image classification and face detection. That is, RNNPool can significantly decrease computational complexity and peak memory usage for inference while retaining comparable accuracy. We use RNNPool with the standard S3FD architecture to construct a face detection method that achieves state-of-the-art MAP for tiny ARM Cortex-M4 class microcontrollers with under 256 KB of RAM. Code is released at
2020-12-09T20:20:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T20:30:00-08:00
Q&A: Joint Q&A for Preceeding Spotlights
2020-12-09T20:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T21:00:00-08:00