## Orals & Spotlights Track 18: Deep Learning

Each Oral includes Q&ASpotlights have joint Q&As

### Time

2020-12-09T06:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T09:00:00-08:00### Session chairs

Yale Song, Dinesh Jayaraman### Video

### Chat

### Chat is not available.

### Schedule

2020-12-09T06:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T06:15:00-08:00

##### 1 - Oral: Ultra-Low Precision 4-bit Training of Deep Neural Networks

Xiao Sun, Naigang Wang, Chia-Yu Chen, Jiamin Ni, Ankur Agrawal, Xiaodong Cui, Swagath Venkataramani, Kaoutar El Maghraoui, Vijayalakshmi (Viji) Srinivasan, Kailash Gopalakrishnan

In this paper, we propose a number of novel techniques and numerical representation formats that enable, for the very first time, the precision of training systems to be aggressively scaled from 8-bits to 4-bits. To enable this advance, we explore a novel adaptive Gradient Scaling technique (Gradscale) that addresses the challenges of insufficient range and resolution in quantized gradients as well as explores the impact of quantization errors observed during model training. We theoretically analyze the role of bias in gradient quantization and propose solutions that mitigate the impact of this bias on model convergence. Finally, we examine our techniques on a spectrum of deep learning models in computer vision, speech, and NLP. In combination with previously proposed solutions for 4-bit quantization of weight and activation tensors, 4-bit training shows a non-significant loss in accuracy across application domains while enabling significant hardware acceleration (> 7X over state-of-the-art FP16 systems).

2020-12-09T06:15:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T06:30:00-08:00

##### 2 - Oral: Reservoir Computing meets Recurrent Kernels and Structured Transforms

Jonathan Dong, Ruben Ohana, Mushegh Rafayelyan, Florent Krzakala

Reservoir Computing is a class of simple yet efficient Recurrent Neural Networks where internal weights are fixed at random and only a linear output layer is trained. In the large size limit, such random neural networks have a deep connection with kernel methods. Our contributions are threefold: a) We rigorously establish the recurrent kernel limit of Reservoir Computing and prove its convergence. b) We test our models on chaotic time series prediction, a classic but challenging benchmark in Reservoir Computing, and show how the Recurrent Kernel is competitive and computationally efficient when the number of data points remains moderate. c) When the number of samples is too large, we leverage the success of structured Random Features for kernel approximation by introducing Structured Reservoir Computing. The two proposed methods, Recurrent Kernel and Structured Reservoir Computing, turn out to be much faster and more memory-efficient than conventional Reservoir Computing.

2020-12-09T06:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T06:45:00-08:00

##### 3 - Oral: The interplay between randomness and structure during learning in RNNs

Friedrich Schuessler, Francesca Mastrogiuseppe, Alexis Dubreuil, Srdjan Ostojic, Omri Barak

Training recurrent neural networks (RNNs) on low-dimensional tasks has been widely used to model functional biological networks. However, the solutions found by learning and the effect of initial connectivity are not well understood. Here, we examine RNNs trained using gradient descent on different tasks inspired by the neuroscience literature. We find that the changes in recurrent connectivity can be described by low-rank matrices. This observation holds even in the presence of random initial connectivity, although this initial connectivity has full rank and significantly accelerates training. To understand the origin of these observations, we turn to an analytically tractable setting: training a linear RNN on a simpler task. We show how the low-dimensional task structure leads to low-rank changes to connectivity, and how random initial connectivity facilitates learning. Altogether, our study opens a new perspective to understand learning in RNNs in light of low-rank connectivity changes and the synergistic role of random initialization.

2020-12-09T06:45:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T07:00:00-08:00

##### Break

2020-12-09T07:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T07:10:00-08:00

##### 5 - Spotlight: What if Neural Networks had SVDs?

Alexander Mathiasen, Frederik Hvilshøj, Jakob Rødsgaard Jørgensen, Anshul Nasery, Davide Mottin

Various Neural Networks employ time-consuming matrix operations like matrix inversion. Many such matrix operations are faster to compute given the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). Techniques from (Zhang et al., 2018; Mhammedi et al., 2017) allow using the SVD in Neural Networks without computing it. In theory, the techniques can speed up matrix operations, however, in practice, they are not fast enough. We present an algorithm that is fast enough to speed up several matrix operations. The algorithm increases the degree of parallelism of an underlying matrix multiplication H*X where H is an orthogonal matrix represented by a product of Householder matrices.

2020-12-09T07:10:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T07:20:00-08:00

##### 6 - Spotlight: Practical Quasi-Newton Methods for Training Deep Neural Networks

Donald Goldfarb, Yi Ren, Achraf Bahamou

We consider the development of practical stochastic quasi-Newton, and in particular Kronecker-factored block diagonal BFGS and L-BFGS methods, for training deep neural networks (DNNs). In DNN training, the number of variables and components of the gradient n is often of the order of tens of millions and the Hessian has n^2 elements. Consequently, computing and storing a full n times n BFGS approximation or storing a modest number of (step, change in gradient) vector pairs for use in an L-BFGS implementation is out of the question. In our proposed methods, we approximate the Hessian by a block-diagonal matrix and use the structure of the gradient and Hessian to further approximate these blocks, each of which corresponds to a layer, as the Kronecker product of two much smaller matrices. This is analogous to the approach in KFAC , which computes a Kronecker-factored block diagonal approximation to the Fisher matrix in a stochastic natural gradient method. Because the indefinite and highly variable nature of the Hessian in a DNN, we also propose a new damping approach to keep the upper as well as the lower bounds of the BFGS and L-BFGS approximations bounded. In tests on autoencoder feed-forward network models with either nine or thirteen layers applied to three datasets, our methods outperformed or performed comparably to KFAC and state-of-the-art first-order stochastic methods.

2020-12-09T07:20:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T07:30:00-08:00

##### 7 - Spotlight: Triple descent and the two kinds of overfitting: where & why do they appear?

Stéphane d'Ascoli, Levent Sagun, Giulio Biroli

A recent line of research has highlighted the existence of a ``double descent'' phenomenon in deep learning, whereby increasing the number of training examples N causes the generalization error of neural networks to peak when N is of the same order as the number of parameters P. In earlier works, a similar phenomenon was shown to exist in simpler models such as linear regression, where the peak instead occurs when N is equal to the input dimension D. Since both peaks coincide with the interpolation threshold, they are often conflated in the litterature. In this paper, we show that despite their apparent similarity, these two scenarios are inherently different. In fact, both peaks can co-exist when neural networks are applied to noisy regression tasks. The relative size of the peaks is then governed by the degree of nonlinearity of the activation function. Building on recent developments in the analysis of random feature models, we provide a theoretical ground for this sample-wise triple descent. As shown previously, the nonlinear peak at N=P is a true divergence caused by the extreme sensitivity of the output function to both the noise corrupting the labels and the initialization of the random features (or the weights in neural networks). This peak survives in the absence of noise, but can be suppressed by regularization. In contrast, the linear peak at N=D is solely due to overfitting the noise in the labels, and forms earlier during training. We show that this peak is implicitly regularized by the nonlinearity, which is why it only becomes salient at high noise and is weakly affected by explicit regularization. Throughout the paper, we compare the analytical results obtained in the random feature model with the outcomes of numerical experiments involving realistic neural networks.

2020-12-09T07:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T07:40:00-08:00

##### 8 - Spotlight: On the linearity of large non-linear models: when and why the tangent kernel is constant

Chaoyue Liu, Libin Zhu, Misha Belkin

The goal of this work is to shed light on the remarkable phenomenon of "transition to linearity" of certain neural networks as their width approaches infinity. We show that the "transition to linearity'' of the model and, equivalently, constancy of the (neural) tangent kernel (NTK) result from the scaling properties of the norm of the Hessian matrix of the network as a function of the network width. We present a general framework for understanding the constancy of the tangent kernel via Hessian scaling applicable to the standard classes of neural networks. Our analysis provides a new perspective on the phenomenon of constant tangent kernel, which is different from the widely accepted "lazy training''. Furthermore, we show that the "transition to linearity" is not a general property of wide neural networks and does not hold when the last layer of the network is non-linear. It is also not necessary for successful optimization by gradient descent.

2020-12-09T07:40:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T07:50:00-08:00

##### Q&A: Joint Q&A for Preceeding Spotlights

2020-12-09T07:50:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T08:00:00-08:00

##### 10 - Spotlight: Implicit Bias in Deep Linear Classification: Initialization Scale vs Training Accuracy

Edward Moroshko, Blake Woodworth, Suriya Gunasekar, Jason Lee, Nati Srebro, Daniel Soudry

We provide a detailed asymptotic study of gradient flow trajectories and their implicit optimization bias when minimizing the exponential loss over "diagonal linear networks". This is the simplest model displaying a transition between "kernel" and non-kernel ("rich" or "active") regimes. We show how the transition is controlled by the relationship between the initialization scale and how accurately we minimize the training loss. Our results indicate that some limit behavior of gradient descent only kick in at ridiculous training accuracies (well beyond 10^-100). Moreover, the implicit bias at reasonable initialization scales and training accuracies is more complex and not captured by these limits.

2020-12-09T08:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T08:10:00-08:00

##### 11 - Spotlight: Proximal Mapping for Deep Regularization

Mao Li, Yingyi Ma, Xinhua Zhang

Underpinning the success of deep learning is effective regularizations that allow a variety of priors in data to be modeled. For example, robustness to adversarial perturbations, and correlations between multiple modalities. However, most regularizers are specified in terms of hidden layer outputs, which are not themselves optimization variables. In contrast to prevalent methods that optimize them indirectly through model weights, we propose inserting proximal mapping as a new layer to the deep network, which directly and explicitly produces well regularized hidden layer outputs. The resulting technique is shown well connected to kernel warping and dropout, and novel algorithms were developed for robust temporal learning and multiview modeling, both outperforming state-of-the-art methods.

2020-12-09T08:10:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T08:20:00-08:00

##### 12 - Spotlight: BoxE: A Box Embedding Model for Knowledge Base Completion

Ralph Abboud, Ismail Ceylan, Thomas Lukasiewicz, Tommaso Salvatori

Knowledge base completion (KBC) aims to automatically infer missing facts by exploiting information already present in a knowledge base (KB). A promising approach for KBC is to embed knowledge into latent spaces and make predictions from learned embeddings. However, existing embedding models are subject to at least one of the following limitations: (1) theoretical inexpressivity, (2) lack of support for prominent inference patterns (e.g., hierarchies), (3) lack of support for KBC over higher-arity relations, and (4) lack of support for incorporating logical rules. Here, we propose a spatio-translational embedding model, called BoxE, that simultaneously addresses all these limitations. BoxE embeds entities as points, and relations as a set of hyper-rectangles (or boxes), which spatially characterize basic logical properties. This seemingly simple abstraction yields a fully expressive model offering a natural encoding for many desired logical properties. BoxE can both capture and inject rules from rich classes of rule languages, going well beyond individual inference patterns. By design, BoxE naturally applies to higher-arity KBs. We conduct a detailed experimental analysis, and show that BoxE achieves state-of-the-art performance, both on benchmark knowledge graphs and on more general KBs, and we empirically show the power of integrating logical rules.

2020-12-09T08:20:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T08:30:00-08:00

##### Q&A: Joint Q&A for Preceeding Spotlights

2020-12-09T08:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-09T09:00:00-08:00