## Orals & Spotlights Track 13: Deep Learning/Theory

Each Oral includes Q&ASpotlights have joint Q&As

### Time

2020-12-08T18:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T21:00:00-08:00### Session chairs

Stanislaw Jastrzebski, Srinadh Bhojanapalli### Video

### Chat

### Chat is not available.

### Schedule

2020-12-08T18:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T18:15:00-08:00

##### 1 - Oral: Implicit Neural Representations with Periodic Activation Functions

Vincent Sitzmann, Julien N.P Martel, Alexander Bergman, David Lindell, Gordon Wetzstein

Implicitly defined, continuous, differentiable signal representations parameterized by neural networks have emerged as a powerful paradigm, offering many possible benefits over conventional representations. However, current network architectures for such implicit neural representations are incapable of modeling signals with fine detail, and fail to represent a signal's spatial and temporal derivatives, despite the fact that these are essential to many physical signals defined implicitly as the solution to partial differential equations. We propose to leverage periodic activation functions for implicit neural representations and demonstrate that these networks, dubbed sinusoidal representation networks or SIRENs, are ideally suited for representing complex natural signals and their derivatives. We analyze SIREN activation statistics to propose a principled initialization scheme and demonstrate the representation of images, wavefields, video, sound, and their derivatives. Further, we show how SIRENs can be leveraged to solve challenging boundary value problems, such as particular Eikonal equations (yielding signed distance functions), the Poisson equation, and the Helmholtz and wave equations. Lastly, we combine SIRENs with hypernetworks to learn priors over the space of SIREN functions.

2020-12-08T18:15:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T18:30:00-08:00

##### 2 - Oral: Pixel-Level Cycle Association: A New Perspective for Domain Adaptive Semantic Segmentation

Guoliang Kang, Yunchao Wei, Yi Yang, Yueting Zhuang, Alexander Hauptmann

Domain adaptive semantic segmentation aims to train a model performing satisfactory pixel-level predictions on the target with only out-of-domain (source) annotations. The conventional solution to this task is to minimize the discrepancy between source and target to enable effective knowledge transfer. Previous domain discrepancy minimization methods are mainly based on the adversarial training. They tend to consider the domain discrepancy globally, which ignore the pixel-wise relationships and are less discriminative. In this paper, we propose to build the pixel-level cycle association between source and target pixel pairs and contrastively strengthen their connections to diminish the domain gap and make the features more discriminative. To the best of our knowledge, this is a new perspective for tackling such a challenging task. Experiment results on two representative domain adaptation benchmarks, i.e. GTAV $\rightarrow$ Cityscapes and SYNTHIA $\rightarrow$ Cityscapes, verify the effectiveness of our proposed method and demonstrate that our method performs favorably against previous state-of-the-arts. Our method can be trained end-to-end in one stage and introduce no additional parameters, which is expected to serve as a general framework and help ease future research in domain adaptive semantic segmentation. Code is available at https://github.com/kgl-prml/Pixel-Level-Cycle-Association.

2020-12-08T18:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T18:45:00-08:00

##### 3 - Oral: Coupling-based Invertible Neural Networks Are Universal Diffeomorphism Approximators

Takeshi Teshima, Isao Ishikawa, Koichi Tojo, Kenta Oono, Masahiro Ikeda, Masashi Sugiyama

Invertible neural networks based on coupling flows (CF-INNs) have various machine learning applications such as image synthesis and representation learning. However, their desirable characteristics such as analytic invertibility come at the cost of restricting the functional forms. This poses a question on their representation power: are CF-INNs universal approximators for invertible functions? Without a universality, there could be a well-behaved invertible transformation that the CF-INN can never approximate, hence it would render the model class unreliable. We answer this question by showing a convenient criterion: a CF-INN is universal if its layers contain affine coupling and invertible linear functions as special cases. As its corollary, we can affirmatively resolve a previously unsolved problem: whether normalizing flow models based on affine coupling can be universal distributional approximators. In the course of proving the universality, we prove a general theorem to show the equivalence of the universality for certain diffeomorphism classes, a theoretical insight that is of interest by itself.

2020-12-08T18:45:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T19:00:00-08:00

##### Break

2020-12-08T19:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T19:10:00-08:00

##### 5 - Spotlight: MetaPerturb: Transferable Regularizer for Heterogeneous Tasks and Architectures

Jeong Un Ryu, JWoong Shin, Hae Beom Lee, Sung Ju Hwang

Regularization and transfer learning are two popular techniques to enhance model generalization on unseen data, which is a fundamental problem of machine learning. Regularization techniques are versatile, as they are task- and architecture-agnostic, but they do not exploit a large amount of data available. Transfer learning methods learn to transfer knowledge from one domain to another, but may not generalize across tasks and architectures, and may introduce new training cost for adapting to the target task. To bridge the gap between the two, we propose a transferable perturbation, MetaPerturb, which is meta-learned to improve generalization performance on unseen data. MetaPerturb is implemented as a set-based lightweight network that is agnostic to the size and the order of the input, which is shared across the layers. Then, we propose a meta-learning framework, to jointly train the perturbation function over heterogeneous tasks in parallel. As MetaPerturb is a set-function trained over diverse distributions across layers and tasks, it can generalize to heterogeneous tasks and architectures. We validate the efficacy and generality of MetaPerturb trained on a specific source domain and architecture, by applying it to the training of diverse neural architectures on heterogeneous target datasets against various regularizers and fine-tuning. The results show that the networks trained with MetaPerturb significantly outperform the baselines on most of the tasks and architectures, with a negligible increase in the parameter size and no hyperparameters to tune.

2020-12-08T19:10:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T19:20:00-08:00

##### 6 - Spotlight: Robust Recovery via Implicit Bias of Discrepant Learning Rates for Double Over-parameterization

Chong You, Zhihui Zhu, Qing Qu, Yi Ma

Recent advances have shown that implicit bias of gradient descent on over-parameterized models enables the recovery of low-rank matrices from linear measurements, even with no prior knowledge on the intrinsic rank. In contrast, for {\em robust} low-rank matrix recovery from {\em grossly corrupted} measurements, over-parameterization leads to overfitting without prior knowledge on both the intrinsic rank and sparsity of corruption. This paper shows that with a {\em double over-parameterization} for both the low-rank matrix and sparse corruption, gradient descent with {\em discrepant learning rates} provably recovers the underlying matrix even without prior knowledge on neither rank of the matrix nor sparsity of the corruption. We further extend our approach for the robust recovery of natural images by over-parameterizing images with deep convolutional networks. Experiments show that our method handles different test images and varying corruption levels with a single learning pipeline where the network width and termination conditions do not need to be adjusted on a case-by-case basis. Underlying the success is again the implicit bias with discrepant learning rates on different over-parameterized parameters, which may bear on broader applications.

2020-12-08T19:20:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T19:30:00-08:00

##### 7 - Spotlight: Compositional Visual Generation with Energy Based Models

Yilun Du, Shuang Li, Igor Mordatch

A vital aspect of human intelligence is the ability to compose increasingly complex concepts out of simpler ideas, enabling both rapid learning and adaptation of knowledge. In this paper we show that energy-based models can exhibit this ability by directly combining probability distributions. Samples from the combined distribution correspond to compositions of concepts. For example, given a distribution for smiling faces, and another for male faces, we can combine them to generate smiling male faces. This allows us to generate natural images that simultaneously satisfy conjunctions, disjunctions, and negations of concepts. We evaluate compositional generation abilities of our model on the CelebA dataset of natural faces and synthetic 3D scene images. We also demonstrate other unique advantages of our model, such as the ability to continually learn and incorporate new concepts, or infer compositions of concept properties underlying an image.

2020-12-08T19:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T19:40:00-08:00

##### 8 - Spotlight: Certified Monotonic Neural Networks

Xingchao Liu, Aaron Han, Na Zhang, Qiang Liu

Learning monotonic models with respect to a subset of the inputs is a desirable feature to effectively address the fairness, interpretability, and generalization issues in practice. Existing methods for learning monotonic neural networks either require specifically designed model structures to ensure monotonicity, which can be too restrictive/complicated, or enforce monotonicity by adjusting the learning process, which cannot provably guarantee the learned model is monotonic on selected features. In this work, we propose to certify the monotonicity of the general piece-wise linear neural networks by solving a mixed integer linear programming problem. This provides a new general approach for learning monotonic neural networks with arbitrary model structures. Our method allows us to train neural networks with heuristic monotonicity regularizations, and we can gradually increase the regularization magnitude until the learned network is certified monotonic. Compared to prior work, our method does not require human-designed constraints on the weight space and also yields more accurate approximation. Empirical studies on various datasets demonstrate the efficiency of our approach over the state-of-the-art methods, such as Deep Lattice Networks

2020-12-08T19:40:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T19:50:00-08:00

##### Q&A: Joint Q&A for Preceeding Spotlights

2020-12-08T19:50:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T20:00:00-08:00

##### 10 - Spotlight: Robust Sub-Gaussian Principal Component Analysis and Width-Independent Schatten Packing

Arun Jambulapati, Jerry Li, Kevin Tian

We develop two methods for the following fundamental statistical task: given an $\eps$-corrupted set of $n$ samples from a $d$-dimensional sub-Gaussian distribution, return an approximate top eigenvector of the covariance matrix. Our first robust PCA algorithm runs in polynomial time, returns a $1 - O(\eps\log\eps^{-1})$-approximate top eigenvector, and is based on a simple iterative filtering approach. Our second, which attains a slightly worse approximation factor, runs in nearly-linear time and sample complexity under a mild spectral gap assumption. These are the first polynomial-time algorithms yielding non-trivial information about the covariance of a corrupted sub-Gaussian distribution without requiring additional algebraic structure of moments. As a key technical tool, we develop the first width-independent solvers for Schatten-$p$ norm packing semidefinite programs, giving a $(1 + \eps)$-approximate solution in $O(p\log(\tfrac{nd}{\eps})\eps^{-1})$ input-sparsity time iterations (where $n$, $d$ are problem dimensions).

2020-12-08T20:00:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T20:10:00-08:00

##### 11 - Spotlight: On Correctness of Automatic Differentiation for Non-Differentiable Functions

Wonyeol Lee, Hangyeol Yu, Xavier Rival, Hongseok Yang

Differentiation lies at the core of many machine-learning algorithms, and is well-supported by popular autodiff systems, such as TensorFlow and PyTorch. Originally, these systems have been developed to compute derivatives of differentiable functions, but in practice, they are commonly applied to functions with non-differentiabilities. For instance, neural networks using ReLU define non-differentiable functions in general, but the gradients of losses involving those functions are computed using autodiff systems in practice. This status quo raises a natural question: are autodiff systems correct in any formal sense when they are applied to such non-differentiable functions? In this paper, we provide a positive answer to this question. Using counterexamples, we first point out flaws in often-used informal arguments, such as: non-differentiabilities arising in deep learning do not cause any issues because they form a measure-zero set. We then investigate a class of functions, called PAP functions, that includes nearly all (possibly non-differentiable) functions in deep learning nowadays. For these PAP functions, we propose a new type of derivatives, called intensional derivatives, and prove that these derivatives always exist and coincide with standard derivatives for almost all inputs. We also show that these intensional derivatives are what most autodiff systems compute or try to compute essentially. In this way, we formally establish the correctness of autodiff systems applied to non-differentiable functions.

2020-12-08T20:10:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T20:20:00-08:00

##### 12 - Spotlight: The Complete Lasso Tradeoff Diagram

Hua Wang, Elsa Yang, Zhiqi Bu, Weijie Su

A fundamental problem in high-dimensional regression is to understand the tradeoff between type I and type II errors or, equivalently, false discovery rate (FDR) and power in variable selection. To address this important problem, we offer the first complete diagram that distinguishes all pairs of FDR and power that can be asymptotically realized by the Lasso from the remaining pairs, in a regime of linear sparsity under random designs. The tradeoff between the FDR and power characterized by our diagram holds no matter how strong the signals are. In particular, our results complete the earlier Lasso tradeoff diagram in previous literature by recognizing two simple constraints on the pairs of FDR and power. The improvement is more substantial when the regression problem is above the Donoho-Tanner phase transition. Finally, we present extensive simulation studies to confirm the sharpness of the complete Lasso tradeoff diagram.

2020-12-08T20:20:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T20:30:00-08:00

##### 13 - Spotlight: Quantifying the Empirical Wasserstein Distance to a Set of Measures: Beating the Curse of Dimensionality

Nian Si, Jose Blanchet, Soumyadip Ghosh, Mark Squillante

We consider the problem of estimating the Wasserstein distance between the empirical measure and a set of probability measures whose expectations over a class of functions (hypothesis class) are constrained. If this class is sufficiently rich to characterize a particular distribution (e.g., all Lipschitz functions), then our formulation recovers the Wasserstein distance to such a distribution. We establish a strong duality result that generalizes the celebrated Kantorovich-Rubinstein duality. We also show that our formulation can be used to beat the curse of dimensionality, which is well known to affect the rates of statistical convergence of the empirical Wasserstein distance. In particular, examples of infinite-dimensional hypothesis classes are presented, informed by a complex correlation structure, for which it is shown that the empirical Wasserstein distance to such classes converges to zero at the standard parametric rate. Our formulation provides insights that help clarify why, despite the curse of dimensionality, the Wasserstein distance enjoys favorable empirical performance across a wide range of statistical applications.

2020-12-08T20:30:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T20:40:00-08:00

##### Q&A: Joint Q&A for Preceeding Spotlights

2020-12-08T20:40:00-08:00 - 2020-12-08T21:00:00-08:00