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Workshop: Medical Imaging Meets NeurIPS

Encoding Clinical Priori in 3D Convolutional Neural Networks for Prostate Cancer Detection in bpMRI

Anindo Saha


We hypothesize that anatomical priors can be viable mediums to infuse domain-specific clinical knowledge into state-of-the-art convolutional neural networks (CNN) based on the U-Net architecture. We introduce a probabilistic population prior which captures the spatial prevalence and zonal distinction of clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa), in order to improve its computer-aided detection (CAD) in bi-parametric MR imaging (bpMRI). To evaluate performance, we train 3D adaptations of the U-Net, U-SEResNet, UNet++ and Attention U-Net using 800 institutional training-validation scans, paired with radiologically-estimated annotations and our computed prior. For 200 independent testing bpMRI scans with histologically-confirmed delineations of csPCa, our proposed method of encoding clinical priori demonstrates a strong ability to improve patient-based diagnosis (upto 8.70% increase in AUROC) and lesion-level detection (average increase of 1.08 pAUC between 0.1–1.0 false positive per patient) across all four architectures.

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