Orals & Spotlights Track 03: Language/Audio Applications
Anshumali Shrivastava · Dilek Hakkani-Tur
Tom B Brown · Benjamin Mann · Nick Ryder · Melanie Subbiah · Jared Kaplan · Prafulla Dhariwal · Arvind Neelakantan · Pranav Shyam · Girish Sastry · Amanda Askell · Sandhini Agarwal · Ariel Herbert-Voss · Gretchen M Krueger · Tom Henighan · Rewon Child · Aditya Ramesh · Daniel Ziegler · Jeffrey Wu · Clemens Winter · Chris Hesse · Mark Chen · Eric Sigler · Mateusz Litwin · Scott Gray · Benjamin Chess · Jack Clark · Christopher Berner · Sam McCandlish · Alec Radford · Ilya Sutskever · Dario Amodei
We demonstrate that scaling up language models greatly improves task-agnostic, few-shot performance, sometimes even becoming competitive with prior state-of-the-art fine-tuning approaches. Specifically, we train GPT-3, an autoregressive language model with 175 billion parameters, 10x more than any previous non-sparse language model, and test its performance in the few-shot setting. For all tasks, GPT-3 is applied without any gradient updates or fine-tuning, with tasks and few-shot demonstrations specified purely via text interaction with the model. GPT-3 achieves strong performance on many NLP datasets, including translation, question-answering, and cloze tasks. We also identify some datasets where GPT-3's few-shot learning still struggles, as well as some datasets where GPT-3 faces methodological issues related to training on large web corpora.
Jaehyeon Kim · Sungwon Kim · Jungil Kong · Sungroh Yoon
Recently, text-to-speech (TTS) models such as FastSpeech and ParaNet have been proposed to generate mel-spectrograms from text in parallel. Despite the advantage, the parallel TTS models cannot be trained without guidance from autoregressive TTS models as their external aligners. In this work, we propose Glow-TTS, a flow-based generative model for parallel TTS that does not require any external aligner. By combining the properties of flows and dynamic programming, the proposed model searches for the most probable monotonic alignment between text and the latent representation of speech on its own. We demonstrate that enforcing hard monotonic alignments enables robust TTS, which generalizes to long utterances, and employing generative flows enables fast, diverse, and controllable speech synthesis. Glow-TTS obtains an order-of-magnitude speed-up over the autoregressive model, Tacotron 2, at synthesis with comparable speech quality. We further show that our model can be easily extended to a multi-speaker setting.
Teerapat Jenrungrot · Vivek Jayaram · Steve Seitz · Ira Kemelmacher-Shlizerman
Given a multi-microphone recording of an unknown number of speakers talking concurrently, we simultaneously localize the sources and separate the individual speakers. At the core of our method is a deep network, in the waveform domain, which isolates sources within an angular region $\theta \pm w/2$, given an angle of interest $\theta$ and angular window size $w$. By exponentially decreasing $w$, we can perform a binary search to localize and separate all sources in logarithmic time. Our algorithm also allows for an arbitrary number of potentially moving speakers at test time, including more speakers than seen during training. Experiments demonstrate state of the art performance for both source separation and source localization, particularly in high levels of background noise.
Scott Wisdom · Efthymios Tzinis · Hakan Erdogan · Ron Weiss · Kevin Wilson · John R. Hershey
In recent years, rapid progress has been made on the problem of single-channel sound separation using supervised training of deep neural networks. In such supervised approaches, a model is trained to predict the component sources from synthetic mixtures created by adding up isolated ground-truth sources. Reliance on this synthetic training data is problematic because good performance depends upon the degree of match between the training data and real-world audio, especially in terms of the acoustic conditions and distribution of sources. The acoustic properties can be challenging to accurately simulate, and the distribution of sound types may be hard to replicate. In this paper, we propose a completely unsupervised method, mixture invariant training (MixIT), that requires only single-channel acoustic mixtures. In MixIT, training examples are constructed by mixing together existing mixtures, and the model separates them into a variable number of latent sources, such that the separated sources can be remixed to approximate the original mixtures. We show that MixIT can achieve competitive performance compared to supervised methods on speech separation. Using MixIT in a semi-supervised learning setting enables unsupervised domain adaptation and learning from large amounts of real-world data without ground-truth source waveforms. In particular, we significantly improve reverberant speech separation performance by incorporating reverberant mixtures, train a speech enhancement system from noisy mixtures, and improve universal sound separation by incorporating a large amount of in-the-wild data.
Jesse Vig · Sebastian Gehrmann · Yonatan Belinkov · Sharon Qian · Daniel Nevo · Yaron Singer · Stuart Shieber
Many interpretation methods for neural models in natural language processing investigate how information is encoded inside hidden representations. However, these methods can only measure whether the information exists, not whether it is actually used by the model. We propose a methodology grounded in the theory of causal mediation analysis for interpreting which parts of a model are causally implicated in its behavior. The approach enables us to analyze the mechanisms that facilitate the flow of information from input to output through various model components, known as mediators. As a case study, we apply this methodology to analyzing gender bias in pre-trained Transformer language models. We study the role of individual neurons and attention heads in mediating gender bias across three datasets designed to gauge a model's sensitivity to gender bias. Our mediation analysis reveals that gender bias effects are concentrated in specific components of the model that may exhibit highly specialized behavior.
Ehsan Hosseini-Asl · Bryan McCann · Chien-Sheng Wu · Semih Yavuz · Richard Socher
Task-oriented dialogue is often decomposed into three tasks: understanding user input, deciding actions, and generating a response. While such decomposition might suggest a dedicated model for each sub-task, we find a simple, unified approach leads to state-of-the-art performance on the MultiWOZ dataset. SimpleTOD is a simple approach to task-oriented dialogue that uses a single, causal language model trained on all sub-tasks recast as a single sequence prediction problem. This allows SimpleTOD to fully leverage transfer learning from pre-trained, open domain, causal language models such as GPT-2. SimpleTOD improves over the prior state-of-the-art in joint goal accuracy for dialogue state tracking, and our analysis reveals robustness to noisy annotations in this setting. SimpleTOD also improves the main metrics used to evaluate action decisions and response generation in an end-to-end setting: inform rate by 8.1 points, success rate by 9.7 points, and combined score by 7.2 points.
Zi-Hang Jiang · Weihao Yu · Daquan Zhou · Yunpeng Chen · Jiashi Feng · Shuicheng Yan
Pre-trained language models like BERT and its variants have recently achieved impressive performance in various natural language understanding tasks. However, BERT heavily relies on the global self-attention block and thus suffers large memory footprint and computation cost. Although all its attention heads query on the whole input sequence for generating the attention map from a global perspective, we observe some heads only need to learn local dependencies, which means existence of computation redundancy. We therefore propose a novel span-based dynamic convolution to replace these self-attention heads to directly model local dependencies. The novel convolution heads, together with the rest self-attention heads, form a new mixed attention block that is more efficient at both global and local context learning. We equip BERT with this mixed attention design and build a ConvBERT model. Experiments have shown that ConvBERT significantly outperforms BERT and its variants in various downstream tasks, with lower training cost and fewer model parameters. Remarkably, ConvBERTbase model achieves 86.4 GLUE score, 0.7 higher than ELECTRAbase, using less than 1/4 training cost. Code and pre-trained models will be released.
Chau Tran · Yuqing Tang · Xian Li · Jiatao Gu
Recent studies have demonstrated the cross-lingual alignment ability of multilingual pretrained language models. In this work, we found that the cross-lingual alignment can be further improved by training seq2seq models on sentence pairs mined using their own encoder outputs. We utilized these findings to develop a new approach --- cross-lingual retrieval for iterative self-supervised training (CRISS), where mining and training processes are applied iteratively, improving cross-lingual alignment and translation ability at the same time. Using this method, we achieved state-of-the-art unsupervised machine translation results on 9 language directions with an average improvement of 2.4 BLEU, and on the Tatoeba sentence retrieval task in the XTREME benchmark on 16 languages with an average improvement of 21.5% in absolute accuracy. Furthermore, CRISS also brings an additional 1.8 BLEU improvement on average compared to mBART, when finetuned on supervised machine translation downstream tasks.
Lu Hou · Zhiqi Huang · Lifeng Shang · Xin Jiang · Xiao Chen · Qun Liu
The pre-trained language models like BERT, though powerful in many natural language processing tasks, are both computation and memory expensive. To alleviate this problem, one approach is to compress them for specific tasks before deployment. However, recent works on BERT compression usually compress the large BERT model to a fixed smaller size, and can not fully satisfy the requirements of different edge devices with various hardware performances. In this paper, we propose a novel dynamic BERT model (abbreviated as DynaBERT), which can flexibly adjust the size and latency by selecting adaptive width and depth. The training process of DynaBERT includes first training a width-adaptive BERT and then allowing both adaptive width and depth, by distilling knowledge from the full-sized model to small sub-networks. Network rewiring is also used to keep the more important attention heads and neurons shared by more sub-networks. Comprehensive experiments under various efficiency constraints demonstrate that our proposed dynamic BERT (or RoBERTa) at its largest size has comparable performance as BERT-base (or RoBERTa-base), while at smaller widths and depths consistently outperforms existing BERT compression methods. Code is available at https://github.com/huawei-noah/Pretrained-Language-Model/tree/master/DynaBERT.
Yipeng Kang · Tonghan Wang · Gerard de Melo
Emergentism and pragmatics are two research fields that study the dynamics of linguistic communication along quite different timescales and intelligence levels. From the perspective of multi-agent reinforcement learning, they correspond to stochastic games with reinforcement training and stage games with opponent awareness, respectively. Given that their combination has been explored in linguistics, in this work, we combine computational models of short-term mutual reasoning-based pragmatics with long-term language emergentism. We explore this for agent communication in two settings, referential games and Starcraft II, assessing the relative merits of different kinds of mutual reasoning pragmatics models both empirically and theoretically. Our results shed light on their importance for making inroads towards getting more natural, accurate, robust, fine-grained, and succinct utterances.
Zhen Sun · Roei Schuster · Vitaly Shmatikov
Components of machine learning systems are not (yet) perceived as security hotspots. Secure coding practices, such as ensuring that no execution paths depend on confidential inputs, have not yet been adopted by ML developers. We initiate the study of code security of ML systems by investigating how nucleus sampling---a popular approach for generating text, used for applications such as auto-completion---unwittingly leaks texts typed by users. Our main result is that the series of nucleus sizes for many natural English word sequences is a unique fingerprint. We then show how an attacker can infer typed text by measuring these fingerprints via a suitable side channel (e.g., cache access times), explain how this attack could help de-anonymize anonymous texts, and discuss defenses.