Learning to detect and encode temporal regularities (TRs) in events is a prerequisite for human-like intelligence. These regularities should be formed from limited event samples and stored as easily retrievable representations. Existing event embeddings, however, cannot effectively decode TR validity with well-trained vectors, let alone satisfy the efficiency requirements. We develop Noether Embedding (NE) as the first efficient TR learner with event embeddings. Specifically, NE possesses the intrinsic time-translation symmetries of TRs indicated as conserved local energies in the embedding space. This structural bias reduces the calculation of each TR validity to embedding each event sample, enabling NE to achieve data-efficient TR formation insensitive to sample size and time-efficient TR retrieval in constant time complexity. To comprehensively evaluate the TR learning capability of embedding models, we define complementary tasks of TR detection and TR query, formulate their evaluation metrics, and assess embeddings on classic ICEWS14, ICEWS18, and GDELT datasets. Our experiments demonstrate that NE consistently achieves about double the F1 scores for detecting valid TRs compared to classic embeddings, and it provides over ten times higher confidence scores for querying TR intervals. Additionally, we showcase NE's potential applications in social event prediction, personal decision-making, and memory-constrained scenarios.