SSL4EO-L: Datasets and Foundation Models for Landsat Imagery

Adam Stewart · Nils Lehmann · Isaac Corley · Yi Wang · Yi-Chia Chang · Nassim Ait Ait Ali Braham · Shradha Sehgal · Caleb Robinson · Arindam Banerjee

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Tue 12 Dec 8:45 a.m. PST — 10:45 a.m. PST


The Landsat program is the longest-running Earth observation program in history, with 50+ years of data acquisition by 8 satellites. The multispectral imagery captured by sensors onboard these satellites is critical for a wide range of scientific fields. Despite the increasing popularity of deep learning and remote sensing, the majority of researchers still use decision trees and random forests for Landsat image analysis due to the prevalence of small labeled datasets and lack of foundation models. In this paper, we introduce SSL4EO-L, the first ever dataset designed for Self-Supervised Learning for Earth Observation for the Landsat family of satellites (including 3 sensors and 2 product levels) and the largest Landsat dataset in history (5M image patches). Additionally, we modernize and re-release the L7 Irish and L8 Biome cloud detection datasets, and introduce the first ML benchmark datasets for Landsats 4–5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ SR. Finally, we pre-train the first foundation models for Landsat imagery using SSL4EO-L and evaluate their performance on multiple semantic segmentation tasks. All datasets and model weights are available via the TorchGeo library, making reproducibility and experimentation easy, and enabling scientific advancements in the burgeoning field of remote sensing for a multitude of downstream applications.

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