Peer review is fundamental to scientific research, impacting scientific progress, grant funding allocation, researcher well-being, career paths, and the public's view of science. This tutorial provides a scientific lens on the systemic issues in peer review. It aims to stimulate discussions and inform policy-making based on scientific evidence (rather than individual opinions or anecdotes), addressing a topic that directly affects us all. To this end, the tutorial will delve into various inherent challenges, drawing on experiments on the peer-review process in diverse scientific disciplines. It will also discuss viable solutions and important open problems. The tutorial material will be available at https://cs.cmu.edu/~nihars/tutorials/NeurIPS2023. Finally, the presenter is excited about two things—peer review and minions—and both of these will be reflected generously in the tutorial.