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Equilibrium Propagation (EP) is a biologically inspired learning algorithm for convergent recurrent neural networks, i.e. RNNs that are fed by a static input x and settle to a steady state. Training convergent RNNs consists in adjusting the weights until the steady state of output neurons coincides with a target y. Convergent RNNs can also be trained with the more conventional Backpropagation Through Time (BPTT) algorithm. In its original formulation EP was described in the case of real-time neuronal dynamics, which is computationally costly. In this work, we introduce a discrete-time version of EP with simplified equations and with reduced simulation time, bringing EP closer to practical machine learning tasks. We first prove theoretically, as well as numerically that the neural and weight updates of EP, computed by forward-time dynamics, are step-by-step equal to the ones obtained by BPTT, with gradients computed backward in time. The equality is strict when the transition function of the dynamics derives from a primitive function and the steady state is maintained long enough. We then show for more standard discrete-time neural network dynamics that the same property is approximately respected and we subsequently demonstrate training with EP with equivalent performance to BPTT. In particular, we …

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Instrumental variable (IV) regression is a strategy for learning causal relationships in observational data. If measurements of input X and output Y are confounded, the causal relationship can nonetheless be identified if an instrumental variable Z is available that influences X directly, but is conditionally independent of Y given X and the unmeasured confounder. The classic two-stage least squares algorithm (2SLS) simplifies the estimation problem by modeling all relationships as linear functions. We propose kernel instrumental variable regression (KIV), a nonparametric generalization of 2SLS, modeling relations among X, Y, and Z as nonlinear functions in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs). We prove the consistency of KIV under mild assumptions, and derive conditions under which convergence occurs at the minimax optimal rate for unconfounded, single-stage RKHS regression. In doing so, we obtain an efficient ratio between training sample sizes used in the algorithm's first and second stages. In experiments, KIV outperforms state of the art alternatives for nonparametric IV regression.

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We study optimal regret bounds for control in linear dynamical systems under adversarially changing strongly convex cost functions, given the knowledge of transition dynamics. This includes several well studied and influential frameworks such as the Kalman filter and the linear quadratic regulator. State of the art methods achieve regret which scales as T^0.5, where T is the time horizon.

We show that the optimal regret in this fundamental setting can be significantly smaller, scaling as polylog(T). This regret bound is achieved by two different efficient iterative methods, online gradient descent and online natural gradient.

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Recent advances in optical voltage sensors have brought us closer to a critical goal in cellular neuroscience: imaging the full spatiotemporal voltage on a dendritic tree. However, current sensors and imaging approaches still face significant limitations in SNR and sampling frequency; therefore statistical denoising and interpolation methods remain critical for understanding single-trial spatiotemporal dendritic voltage dynamics. Previous denoising approaches were either based on an inadequate linear voltage model or scaled poorly to large trees. Here we introduce a scalable fully Bayesian approach. We develop a generative nonlinear model that requires few parameters per compartment of the cell but is nonetheless flexible enough to sample realistic spatiotemporal data. The model captures different dynamics in each compartment and leverages biophysical knowledge to constrain intra- and inter-compartmental dynamics. We obtain a full posterior distribution over spatiotemporal voltage via an augmented Gibbs sampling algorithm. The nonlinear smoother model outperforms previously developed linear methods, and scales to much larger systems than previous methods based on sequential Monte Carlo approaches.

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Behavioral cloning reduces policy learning to supervised learning by training a discriminative model to predict expert actions given observations. Such discriminative models are non-causal: the training procedure is unaware of the causal structure of the interaction between the expert and the environment. We point out that ignoring causality is particularly damaging because of the distributional shift in imitation learning. In particular, it leads to a counter-intuitive "causal misidentification" phenomenon: access to more information can yield worse performance. We investigate how this problem arises, and propose a solution to combat it through targeted interventions---either environment interaction or expert queries---to determine the correct causal model. We show that causal misidentification occurs in several benchmark control domains as well as realistic driving settings, and validate our solution against DAgger and other baselines and ablations.

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The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) is one of the most widely used first-order optimisation methods in the literature owing to its simplicity, flexibility and efficiency. Over the years, numerous efforts are made to improve the performance of the method, such as the inertial technique. By studying the geometric properties of ADMM, we discuss the limitations of current inertial accelerated ADMM and then present and analyze an adaptive acceleration scheme for the method. Numerical experiments on problems arising from image processing, statistics and machine learning demonstrate the advantages of the proposed acceleration approach.

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We introduce a new generative model where samples are produced via Langevin dynamics using gradients of the data distribution estimated with score matching. Because gradients can be ill-defined and hard to estimate when the data resides on low-dimensional manifolds, we perturb the data with different levels of Gaussian noise, and jointly estimate the corresponding scores, i.e., the vector fields of gradients of the perturbed data distribution for all noise levels. For sampling, we propose an annealed Langevin dynamics where we use gradients corresponding to gradually decreasing noise levels as the sampling process gets closer to the data manifold. Our framework allows flexible model architectures, requires no sampling during training or the use of adversarial methods, and provides a learning objective that can be used for principled model comparisons. Our models produce samples comparable to GANs on MNIST, CelebA and CIFAR-10 datasets, achieving a new state-of-the-art inception score of 8.87 on CIFAR-10. Additionally, we demonstrate that our models learn effective representations via image inpainting experiments.

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Bayesian inference in state-space models is challenging due to high-dimensional state trajectories. A viable approach is particle Markov chain Monte Carlo (PMCMC), combining MCMC and sequential Monte Carlo to form ``exact approximations'' to otherwise-intractable MCMC methods. The performance of the approximation is limited to that of the exact method. We focus on particle Gibbs (PG) and particle Gibbs with ancestor sampling (PGAS), improving their performance beyond that of the ideal Gibbs sampler (which they approximate) by marginalizing out one or more parameters. This is possible when the parameter(s) has a conjugate prior relationship with the complete data likelihood. Marginalization yields a non-Markov model for inference, but we show that, in contrast to the general case, the methods still scale linearly in time. While marginalization can be cumbersome to implement, recent advances in probabilistic programming have enabled its automation. We demonstrate how the marginalized methods are viable as efficient inference backends in probabilistic programming, and demonstrate with examples in ecology and epidemiology.

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In an effort to better understand the different ways in which the discount factor affects the optimization process in reinforcement learning, we designed a set of experiments to study each effect in isolation. Our analysis reveals that the common perception that poor performance of low discount factors is caused by (too) small action-gaps requires revision. We propose an alternative hypothesis that identifies the size-difference of the action-gap across the state-space as the primary cause. We then introduce a new method that enables more homogeneous action-gaps by mapping value estimates to a logarithmic space. We prove convergence for this method under standard assumptions and demonstrate empirically that it indeed enables lower discount factors for approximate reinforcement-learning methods. This in turn allows tackling a class of reinforcement-learning problems that are challenging to solve with traditional methods.

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Unsupervised learning with generative models has the potential of discovering rich representations of 3D scenes. While geometric deep learning has explored 3D-structure-aware representations of scene geometry, these models typically require explicit 3D supervision. Emerging neural scene representations can be trained only with posed 2D images, but existing methods ignore the three-dimensional structure of scenes. We propose Scene Representation Networks (SRNs), a continuous, 3D-structure-aware scene representation that encodes both geometry and appearance. SRNs represent scenes as continuous functions that map world coordinates to a feature representation of local scene properties. By formulating the image formation as a differentiable ray-marching algorithm, SRNs can be trained end-to-end from only 2D images and their camera poses, without access to depth or shape. This formulation naturally generalizes across scenes, learning powerful geometry and appearance priors in the process. We demonstrate the potential of SRNs by evaluating them for novel view synthesis, few-shot reconstruction, joint shape and appearance interpolation, and unsupervised discovery of a non-rigid face model.

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Animals need to devise strategies to maximize returns while interacting with their environment based on incoming noisy sensory observations. Task-relevant states, such as the agent's location within an environment or the presence of a predator, are often not directly observable but must be inferred using available sensory information. Successor representations (SR) have been proposed as a middle-ground between model-based and model-free reinforcement learning strategies, allowing for fast value computation and rapid adaptation to changes in the reward function or goal locations. Indeed, recent studies suggest that features of neural responses are consistent with the SR framework. However, it is not clear how such representations might be learned and computed in partially observed, noisy environments. Here, we introduce a neurally plausible model using \emph{distributional successor features}, which builds on the distributed distributional code for the representation and computation of uncertainty, and which allows for efficient value function computation in partially observed environments via the successor representation. We show that distributional successor features can support reinforcement learning in noisy environments in which direct learning of successful policies is infeasible.

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Deep neural networks achieve stellar generalisation even when they have enough parameters to easily fit all their training data. We study this phenomenon by analysing the dynamics and the performance of over-parameterised two-layer neural networks in the teacher-student setup, where one network, the student, is trained on data generated by another network, called the teacher. We show how the dynamics of stochastic gradient descent (SGD) is captured by a set of differential equations and prove that this description is asymptotically exact in the limit of large inputs. Using this framework, we calculate the final generalisation error of student networks that have more parameters than their teachers. We find that the final generalisation error of the student increases with network size when training only the first layer, but stays constant or even decreases with size when training both layers. We show that these different behaviours have their root in the different solutions SGD finds for different activation functions. Our results indicate that achieving good generalisation in neural networks goes beyond the properties of SGD alone and depends on the interplay of at least the algorithm, the model architecture, and the data set.

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Despite recent progress in computer vision, image retrieval remains a challenging open problem. Numerous variations such as view angle, lighting and occlusion make it difficult to design models that are both robust and efficient. Many leading methods traverse the nearest neighbor graph to exploit higher order neighbor information and uncover the highly complex underlying manifold. In this work we propose a different approach where we leverage graph convolutional networks to directly encode neighbor information into image descriptors. We further leverage ideas from clustering and manifold learning, and introduce an unsupervised loss based on pairwise separation of image similarities. Empirically, we demonstrate that our model is able to successfully learn a new descriptor space that significantly improves retrieval accuracy, while still allowing efficient inner product inference. Experiments on five public benchmarks show highly competitive performance with up to 24\% relative improvement in mAP over leading baselines. Full code for this work is available here: https://github.com/layer6ai-labs/GSS.

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We take an unorthodox view of voting by expanding the design space to include both the elicitation rule, whereby voters map their (cardinal) preferences to votes, and the aggregation rule, which transforms the reported votes into collective decisions. Intuitively, there is a tradeoff between the communication requirements of the elicitation rule (i.e., the number of bits of information that voters need to provide about their preferences) and the efficiency of the outcome of the aggregation rule, which we measure through distortion (i.e., how well the utilitarian social welfare of the outcome approximates the maximum social welfare in the worst case). Our results chart the Pareto frontier of the communication-distortion tradeoff.

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In this paper, we study the multi-armed bandit problem in the batched setting where the employed policy must split data into a small number of batches. While the minimax regret for the two-armed stochastic bandits has been completely characterized in \cite{perchet2016batched}, the effect of the number of arms on the regret for the multi-armed case is still open. Moreover, the question whether adaptively chosen batch sizes will help to reduce the regret also remains underexplored. In this paper, we propose the BaSE (batched successive elimination) policy to achieve the rate-optimal regrets (within logarithmic factors) for batched multi-armed bandits, with matching lower bounds even if the batch sizes are determined in an adaptive manner.

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How should a player who repeatedly plays a game against a no-regret learner strategize to maximize his utility? We study this question and show that under some mild assumptions, the player can always guarantee himself a utility of at least what he would get in a Stackelberg equilibrium. When the no-regret learner has only two actions, we show that the player cannot get any higher utility than the Stackelberg equilibrium utility. But when the no-regret learner has more than two actions and plays a mean-based no-regret strategy, we show that the player can get strictly higher than the Stackelberg equilibrium utility. We construct the optimal game-play for the player against a mean-based no-regret learner who has three actions. When the no-regret learner's strategy also guarantees him a no-swap regret, we show that the player cannot get anything higher than a Stackelberg equilibrium utility.

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Stochastic classifiers arise in a number of machine learning problems, and have become especially prominent of late, as they often result from constrained optimization problems, e.g. for fairness, churn, or custom losses. Despite their utility, the inherent randomness of stochastic classifiers may cause them to be problematic to use in practice for a variety of practical reasons. In this paper, we attempt to answer the theoretical question of how well a stochastic classifier can be approximated by a deterministic one, and compare several different approaches, proving lower and upper bounds. We also experimentally investigate the pros and cons of these methods, not only in regard to how successfully each deterministic classifier approximates the original stochastic classifier, but also in terms of how well each addresses the other issues that can make stochastic classifiers undesirable.

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Deep convolutional artificial neural networks (ANNs) are the leading class of candidate models of the mechanisms of visual processing in the primate ventral stream. While initially inspired by brain anatomy, over the past years, these ANNs have evolved from a simple eight-layer architecture in AlexNet to extremely deep and branching architectures, demonstrating increasingly better object categorization performance, yet bringing into question how brain-like they still are. In particular, typical deep models from the machine learning community are often hard to map onto the brain's anatomy due to their vast number of layers and missing biologically-important connections, such as recurrence. Here we demonstrate that better anatomical alignment to the brain and high performance on machine learning as well as neuroscience measures do not have to be in contradiction. We developed CORnet-S, a shallow ANN with four anatomically mapped areas and recurrent connectivity, guided by Brain-Score, a new large-scale composite of neural and behavioral benchmarks for quantifying the functional fidelity of models of the primate ventral visual stream. Despite being significantly shallower than most models, CORnet-S is the top model on Brain-Score and outperforms similarly compact models on ImageNet. Moreover, our extensive analyses of CORnet-S circuitry variants reveal that recurrence is the …

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We present a randomized primal-dual algorithm that solves the problem min*x max*y y^T A x to additive error epsilon in time nnz(A) + sqrt{nnz(A) n} / epsilon, for matrix A with larger dimension n and nnz(A) nonzero entries. This improves the best known exact gradient methods by a factor of sqrt{nnz(A) / n} and is faster than fully stochastic gradient methods in the accurate and/or sparse regime epsilon < sqrt{n / nnz(A)$. Our results hold for x,y in the simplex (matrix games, linear programming) and for x in an \ell_2 ball and y in the simplex (perceptron / SVM, minimum enclosing ball). Our algorithm combines the Nemirovski's "conceptual prox-method" and a novel reduced-variance gradient estimator based on "sampling from the difference" between the current iterate and a reference point.

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We present a general framework for solving a large class of learning problems with non-linear functions of classification rates. This includes problems where one wishes to optimize a non-decomposable performance metric such as the F-measure or G-mean, and constrained training problems where the classifier needs to satisfy non-linear rate constraints such as predictive parity fairness, distribution divergences or churn ratios. We extend previous two-player game approaches for constrained optimization to an approach with three players to decouple the classifier rates from the non-linear objective, and seek to find an equilibrium of the game. Our approach generalizes many existing algorithms, and makes possible new algorithms with more flexibility and tighter handling of non-linear rate constraints. We provide convergence guarantees for convex functions of rates, and show how our methodology can be extended to handle sums-of-ratios of rates. Experiments on different fairness tasks confirm the efficacy of our approach.

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We present Matrix Krasulina, an algorithm for online k-PCA, by gen- eralizing the classic Krasulina’s method (Krasulina, 1969) from vector to matrix case. We show, both theoretically and empirically, that the algorithm naturally adapts to data low-rankness and converges exponentially fast to the ground-truth principal subspace. Notably, our result suggests that despite various recent efforts to accelerate the convergence of stochastic-gradient based methods by adding a O(n)-time variance reduction step, for the k- PCA problem, a truly online SGD variant suffices to achieve exponential convergence on intrinsically low-rank data.

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We propose a novel deep learning method for local self-supervised representation learning that does not require labels nor end-to-end backpropagation but exploits the natural order in data instead. Inspired by the observation that biological neural networks appear to learn without backpropagating a global error signal, we split a deep neural network into a stack of gradient-isolated modules. Each module is trained to maximally preserve the information of its inputs using the InfoNCE bound from Oord et al [2018]. Despite this greedy training, we demonstrate that each module improves upon the output of its predecessor, and that the representations created by the top module yield highly competitive results on downstream classification tasks in the audio and visual domain. The proposal enables optimizing modules asynchronously, allowing large-scale distributed training of very deep neural networks on unlabelled datasets.

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Feature hashing and other random projection schemes are commonly used to reduce the dimensionality of feature vectors. The goal is to efficiently project a high-dimensional feature vector living in R^n into a much lower-dimensional space R^m, while approximately preserving Euclidean norm. These schemes can be constructed using sparse random projections, for example using a sparse Johnson-Lindenstrauss (JL) transform. A line of work introduced by Weinberger et. al (ICML '09) analyzes the accuracy of sparse JL with sparsity 1 on feature vectors with small l*infinity-to-l*2 norm ratio. Recently, Freksen, Kamma, and Larsen (NeurIPS '18) closed this line of work by proving a tight tradeoff between l*infinity-to-l*2 norm ratio and accuracy for sparse JL with sparsity 1. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits of using sparsity s greater than 1 in sparse JL on feature vectors. Our main result is a tight tradeoff between l*infinity-to-l*2 norm ratio and accuracy for a general sparsity s, that significantly generalizes the result of Freksen et. al. Our result theoretically demonstrates that sparse JL with s > 1 can have significantly better norm-preservation properties on feature vectors than sparse JL with s = 1; we also empirically demonstrate this …

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Super resolution (SR) methods typically assume that the low-resolution (LR) image was downscaled from the unknown high-resolution (HR) image by a fixed `ideal’ downscaling kernel (e.g. Bicubic downscaling). However, this is rarely the case in real LR images, in contrast to synthetically generated SR datasets. When the assumed downscaling kernel deviates from the true one, the performance of SR methods significantly deteriorates. This gave rise to Blind-SR - namely, SR when the downscaling kernel (`SR-kernel’’) is unknown. It was further shown that the true SR-kernel is the one that maximizes the recurrence of patches across scales of the LR image. In this paper we show how this powerful cross-scale recurrence property can be realized using Deep Internal Learning. We introduce`

KernelGAN’’, an image-specific Internal-GAN, which trains solely on the LR test image at test time, and learns its internal distribution of patches. Its Generator is trained to produce a downscaled version of the LR test image, such that its Discriminator cannot distinguish between the patch distribution of the downscaled image, and the patch distribution of the original LR image. The Generator, once trained, constitutes the downscaling operation with the correct image-specific SR-kernel. KernelGAN is fully unsupervised, requires no training …

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We propose a new family of fairness definitions for classification problems that combine some of the best properties of both statistical and individual notions of fairness. We posit not only a distribution over individuals, but also a distribution over (or collection of) classification tasks. We then ask that standard statistics (such as error or false positive/negative rates) be (approximately) equalized across individuals, where the rate is defined as an expectation over the classification tasks. Because we are no longer averaging over coarse groups (such as race or gender), this is a semantically meaningful individual-level constraint. Given a sample of individuals and problems, we design an oracle-efficient algorithm (i.e. one that is given access to any standard, fairness-free learning heuristic) for the fair empirical risk minimization task. We also show that given sufficiently many samples, the ERM solution generalizes in two directions: both to new individuals, and to new classification tasks, drawn from their corresponding distributions. Finally we implement our algorithm and empirically verify its effectiveness.

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We study the problem of estimating a nonparametric probability distribution under a family of losses called Besov IPMs. This family is quite large, including, for example, L^p distances, total variation distance, and generalizations of both Wasserstein (earthmover's) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov distances. For a wide variety of settings, we provide both lower and upper bounds, identifying precisely how the choice of loss function and assumptions on the data distribution interact to determine the mini-max optimal convergence rate. We also show that, in many cases, linear distribution estimates, such as the empirical distribution or kernel density estimator, cannot converge at the optimal rate. These bounds generalize, unify, or improve on several recent and classical results. Moreover, IPMs can be used to formalize a statistical model of generative adversarial networks (GANs). Thus, we show how our results imply bounds on the statistical error of a GAN, showing, for example, that, in many cases, GANs can strictly outperform the best linear estimator.

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Interest point detection and local feature description are fundamental steps in many computer vision applications. Classical approaches are based on a detect-then-describe paradigm where separate handcrafted methods are used to first identify repeatable keypoints and then represent them with a local descriptor. Neural networks trained with metric learning losses have recently caught up with these techniques, focusing on learning repeatable saliency maps for keypoint detection or learning descriptors at the detected keypoint locations. In this work, we argue that repeatable regions are not necessarily discriminative and can therefore lead to select suboptimal keypoints. Furthermore, we claim that descriptors should be learned only in regions for which matching can be performed with high confidence. We thus propose to jointly learn keypoint detection and description together with a predictor of the local descriptor discriminativeness. This allows to avoid ambiguous areas, thus leading to reliable keypoint detection and description. Our detection-and-description approach simultaneously outputs sparse, repeatable and reliable keypoints that outperforms state-of-the-art detectors and descriptors on the HPatches dataset and on the recent Aachen Day-Night localization benchmark.

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With the capability of modeling bidirectional contexts, denoising autoencoding based pretraining like BERT achieves better performance than pretraining approaches based on autoregressive language modeling. However, relying on corrupting the input with masks, BERT neglects dependency between the masked positions and suffers from a pretrain-finetune discrepancy. In light of these pros and cons, we propose XLNet, a generalized autoregressive pretraining method that (1) enables learning bidirectional contexts by maximizing the expected likelihood over all permutations of the factorization order and (2) overcomes the limitations of BERT thanks to its autoregressive formulation. Furthermore, XLNet integrates ideas from Transformer-XL, the state-of-the-art autoregressive model, into pretraining. Empirically, under comparable experiment setting, XLNet outperforms BERT on 20 tasks, often by a large margin, including question answering, natural language inference, sentiment analysis, and document ranking.

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Consider the setting of Linear Regression where the observed response variables, in expectation, are linear functions of the p-dimensional covariates. Then to achieve vanishing prediction error, the number of required samples scales faster than pσ2, where σ2 is a bound on the noise variance. In a high-dimensional setting where p is large but the covariates admit a low-dimensional representation (say r ≪ p), then Principal Component Regression (PCR), cf. [36], is an effective approach; here, the response variables are regressed with respect to the principal components of the covariates. The resulting number of required samples to achieve vanishing prediction error now scales faster than rσ2(≪ pσ2). Despite the tremendous utility of PCR, its ability to handle settings with noisy, missing, and mixed (discrete and continuous) valued covariates is not understood and remains an important open challenge, cf. [24]. As the main contribution of this work, we address this challenge by rigorously establishing that PCR is robust to noisy, sparse, and possibly mixed valued covariates. Specifically, under PCR, vanishing prediction error is achieved with the number of samples scaling as r max(σ2, ρ−4 log5(p)), where ρ denotes the fraction of observed (noisy) covariates. We establish generalization error bounds on the performance …