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ACIL: Analytic Class-Incremental Learning with Absolute Memorization and Privacy Protection

HUIPING ZHUANG · Zhenyu Weng · Hongxin Wei · RENCHUNZI XIE · Kar-Ann Toh · Zhiping Lin

Keywords: [ large-phase ] [ absolute memorization ] [ privacy protection ] [ Class incremental learning ] [ recursive ] [ exemplar-free ]


Class-incremental learning (CIL) learns a classification model with training data of different classes arising progressively. Existing CIL either suffers from serious accuracy loss due to catastrophic forgetting, or invades data privacy by revisiting used exemplars. Inspired by learning of linear problems, we propose an analytic class-incremental learning (ACIL) with absolute memorization of past knowledge while avoiding breaching of data privacy (i.e., without storing historical data). The absolute memorization is demonstrated in the sense that the CIL using ACIL given present data would give identical results to that from its joint-learning counterpart that consumes both present and historical samples. This equality is theoretically validated. The data privacy is ensured by showing that no historical data are involved during the learning process. Empirical validations demonstrate ACIL's competitive accuracy performance with near-identical results for various incremental task settings (e.g., 5-50 phases). This also allows ACIL to outperform the state-of-the-art methods for large-phase scenarios (e.g., 25 and 50 phases).

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