In this paper, we study the problem of domain adaptation regression, which learns a regressor for a target domain by leveraging the knowledge from a relevant source domain. We start by proposing a distribution-informed neural network, which aims to build distribution-aware relationship of inputs and outputs from different domains. This allows us to develop a simple domain adaptation regression framework, which subsumes popular domain adaptation approaches based on domain invariant representation learning, reweighting, and adaptive Gaussian process. The resulting findings not only explain the connections of existing domain adaptation approaches, but also motivate the efficient training of domain adaptation approaches with overparameterized neural networks. We also analyze the convergence and generalization error bound of our framework based on the distribution-informed neural network. Specifically, our generalization bound focuses explicitly on the maximum mean discrepancy in the RKHS induced by the neural tangent kernel of distribution-informed neural network. This is in sharp contrast to the existing work which relies on domain discrepancy in the latent feature space heuristically formed by one or several hidden neural layers. The efficacy of our framework is also empirically verified on a variety of domain adaptation regression benchmarks.