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Sparse Structure Search for Delta Tuning

Shengding Hu · Zhen Zhang · Ning Ding · Yadao Wang · Yasheng Wang · Zhiyuan Liu · Maosong Sun

Keywords: [ Parameter Efficient Tuning ] [ Neural Architecture Search ] [ pre-trained models ] [ Delta Tuning ]

Abstract: Adapting large pre-trained models (PTMs) through fine-tuning imposes prohibitive computational and storage burdens. Recent studies of delta tuning (DT), i.e., parameter-efficient tuning, find that only optimizing a small portion of parameters conditioned on PTMs could yield on-par performance compared to conventional fine-tuning. Generally, DT methods exquisitely design delta modules (DT modules) which could be applied to arbitrary fine-grained positions inside PTMs. However, the effectiveness of these fine-grained positions largely relies on sophisticated manual designation, thereby usually producing sub-optimal results. In contrast to the manual designation, we explore constructing DT modules in an automatic manner. We automatically \textbf{S}earch for the \textbf{S}parse \textbf{S}tructure of \textbf{Delta} Tuning (S$^3$Delta). Based on a unified framework of various DT methods, S$^3$Delta conducts the differentiable DT structure search through bi-level optimization and proposes shifted global sigmoid method to explicitly control the number of trainable parameters. Extensive experiments show that S$^3$Delta surpasses manual and random structures with less trainable parameters. The searched structures preserve more than 99\% fine-tuning performance with 0.01\% trainable parameters. Moreover, the advantage of S$^3$Delta is amplified with extremely low trainable parameters budgets (0.0009\%$\sim$0.01\%). The searched structures are transferable and explainable, providing suggestions and guidance for the future design of DT methods. Our codes are publicly available at \url{}.

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