Keywords: [ multi-agent ] [ offline reinforcement learning ] [ offline multi-agent reinforcement learning ]
We introduce an offline multi-agent reinforcement learning ( offline MARL) framework that utilizes previously collected data without additional online data collection. Our method reformulates offline MARL as a sequence modeling problem and thus builds on top of the simplicity and scalability of the Transformer architecture. In the fashion of centralized training and decentralized execution, we propose to first train a teacher policy as if the MARL dataset is generated by a single agent. After the teacher policy has identified and recombined the "good" behavior in the dataset, we create separate student policies and distill not only the teacher policy's features but also its structural relations among different agents' features to student policies. Despite its simplicity, the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art model-free offline MARL baselines while being more robust to demonstration's quality on several environments.