VTC-LFC: Vision Transformer Compression with Low-Frequency Components

Zhenyu Wang · Hao Luo · Pichao WANG · Feng Ding · Fan Wang · Hao Li

Keywords: [ ViT ] [ low-frequency ] [ compression ]


Although Vision transformers (ViTs) have recently dominated many vision tasks, deploying ViT models on resource-limited devices remains a challenging problem. To address such a challenge, several methods have been proposed to compress ViTs. Most of them borrow experience in convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and mainly focus on the spatial domain. However, the compression only in the spatial domain suffers from a dramatic performance drop without fine-tuning and is not robust to noise, as the noise in the spatial domain can easily confuse the pruning criteria, leading to some parameters/channels being pruned incorrectly. Inspired by recent findings that self-attention is a low-pass filter and low-frequency signals/components are more informative to ViTs, this paper proposes compressing ViTs with low-frequency components. Two metrics named low-frequency sensitivity (LFS) and low-frequency energy (LFE) are proposed for better channel pruning and token pruning. Additionally, a bottom-up cascade pruning scheme is applied to compress different dimensions jointly. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method could save 40% ~ 60% of the FLOPs in ViTs, thus significantly increasing the throughput on practical devices with less than 1% performance drop on ImageNet-1K.

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