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Scaling & Shifting Your Features: A New Baseline for Efficient Model Tuning

Dongze Lian · Daquan Zhou · Jiashi Feng · Xinchao Wang

Hall J (level 1) #208

Keywords: [ Vision transformer ] [ Fine-tuning ] [ efficient ]


Existing fine-tuning methods either tune all parameters of the pre-trained model (full fine-tuning), which is not efficient, or only tune the last linear layer (linear probing), which suffers a significant accuracy drop compared to the full fine-tuning. In this paper, we propose a new parameter-efficient fine-tuning method termed as SSF, representing that researchers only need to Scale and Shift the deep Features extracted by a pre-trained model to catch up with the performance of full fine-tuning. In this way, SSF also surprisingly outperforms other parameter-efficient fine-tuning approaches even with a smaller number of tunable parameters. Furthermore, different from some existing parameter-efficient fine-tuning methods (e.g., Adapter or VPT) that introduce the extra parameters and computational cost in the training and inference stages, SSF only adds learnable parameters during the training stage, and these additional parameters can be merged into the original pre-trained model weights via re-parameterization in the inference phase. With the proposed SSF, our model obtains 2.46% (90.72% vs. 88.54%) and 11.48% (73.10% vs. 65.57%) performance improvement on FGVC and VTAB-1k in terms of Top-1 accuracy compared to the full fine-tuning but only fine-tuning about 0.3M parameters. We also conduct amounts of experiments in various model families (CNNs, Transformers, and MLPs) and datasets. Results on 26 image classification datasets in total and 3 robustness & out-of-distribution datasets show the effectiveness of SSF. Code is available at

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