Keywords: [ Object Detection and Segmentation ] [ Dense Visual Predictions ] [ Large-batch Training ]
Training a large-scale deep neural network in a large-scale dataset is challenging and time-consuming. The recent breakthrough of large-batch optimization is a promising way to tackle this challenge. However, although the current advanced algorithms such as LARS and LAMB succeed in classification models, the complicated pipelines of dense visual predictions such as object detection and segmentation still suffer from the heavy performance drop in the large-batch training regime. To address this challenge, we propose a simple yet effective algorithm, named Adaptive Gradient Variance Modulator (AGVM), which can train dense visual predictors with very large batch size, enabling several benefits more appealing than prior arts. Firstly, AGVM can align the gradient variances between different modules in the dense visual predictors, such as backbone, feature pyramid network (FPN), detection, and segmentation heads. We show that training with a large batch size can fail with the gradient variances misaligned among them, which is a phenomenon primarily overlooked in previous work. Secondly, AGVM is a plug-and-play module that generalizes well to many different architectures (e.g., CNNs and Transformers) and different tasks (e.g., object detection, instance segmentation, semantic segmentation, and panoptic segmentation). It is also compatible with different optimizers (e.g., SGD and AdamW). Thirdly, a theoretical analysis of AGVM is provided. Extensive experiments on the COCO and ADE20K datasets demonstrate the superiority of AGVM. For example, AGVM demonstrates more stable generalization performance than prior arts under extremely large batch size (i.e., 10k). AGVM can train Faster R-CNN+ResNet50 in 4.2 minutes without losing performance. It enables training an object detector with one billion parameters in just 3.5 hours, reducing the training time by 20.9×, whilst achieving 62.2 mAP on COCO. The deliverables will be released at https://github.com/Sense-X/AGVM.