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DAGMA: Learning DAGs via M-matrices and a Log-Determinant Acyclicity Characterization

Kevin Bello · Bryon Aragam · Pradeep Ravikumar

Hall J (level 1) #309

Keywords: [ Graphical Models ] [ causal discovery ] [ Structure Learning ] [ Non-Convex Optimization ] [ directed acyclic graphs ] [ log-determinant ] [ continuous optimization ]

Abstract: The combinatorial problem of learning directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) from data was recently framed as a purely continuous optimization problem by leveraging a differentiable acyclicity characterization of DAGs based on the trace of a matrix exponential function. Existing acyclicity characterizations are based on the idea that powers of an adjacency matrix contain information about walks and cycles. In this work, we propose a new acyclicity characterization based on the log-determinant (log-det) function, which leverages the nilpotency property of DAGs. To deal with the inherent asymmetries of a DAG, we relate the domain of our log-det characterization to the set of $\textit{M-matrices}$, which is a key difference to the classical log-det function defined over the cone of positive definite matrices.Similar to acyclicity functions previously proposed, our characterization is also exact and differentiable. However, when compared to existing characterizations, our log-det function: (1) Is better at detecting large cycles; (2) Has better-behaved gradients; and (3) Its runtime is in practice about an order of magnitude faster. From the optimization side, we drop the typically used augmented Lagrangian scheme and propose DAGMA ($\textit{Directed Acyclic Graphs via M-matrices for Acyclicity}$), a method that resembles the central path for barrier methods. Each point in the central path of DAGMA is a solution to an unconstrained problem regularized by our log-det function, then we show that at the limit of the central path the solution is guaranteed to be a DAG. Finally, we provide extensive experiments for $\textit{linear}$ and $\textit{nonlinear}$ SEMs and show that our approach can reach large speed-ups and smaller structural Hamming distances against state-of-the-art methods. Code implementing the proposed method is open-source and publicly available at

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