Despite a surge of recent advances in promoting machine Learning (ML) fairness, the existing mainstream approaches mostly require training or finetuning the entire weights of the neural network to meet the fairness criteria. However, this is often infeasible in practice for those large-scale trained models due to large computational and storage costs, low data efficiency, and model privacy issues. In this paper, we propose a new generic fairness learning paradigm, called FairReprogram, which incorporates the model reprogramming technique. Specifically, FairReprogram considers the case where models can not be changed and appends to the input a set of perturbations, called the fairness trigger, which is tuned towards the fairness criteria under a min-max formulation. We further introduce an information-theoretic framework that explains why and under what conditions fairness goals can be achieved using the fairness trigger. We show both theoretically and empirically that the fairness trigger can effectively obscure demographic biases in the output prediction of fixed ML models by providing false demographic information that hinders the model from utilizing the correct demographic information to make the prediction. Extensive experiments on both NLP and CV datasets demonstrate that our method can achieve better fairness improvements than retraining-based methods with far less data dependency under two widely-used fairness criteria. Codes are available at https://github.com/UCSB-NLP-Chang/Fairness-Reprogramming.git.